The extent of Jewish influence has been remarkably and disproportionately large in many countries. Relative to a global total of 6.7 billion people, Jews represent just 0.19 percent (and shrinking). The world's Jewish population is, according to a report in June 2015, about the same numbers as it was in 1939.
The Vanity Fair magazine, who compile a yearly list of the "100 most powerful people in the world", showed that in October 2007 over 50 percent (57), were Jewish.
- 1 Antiquity
- 2 Austria
- 3 Brazil
- 4 France
- 5 Germany
- 6 Hungary
- 7 Poland
- 8 Romania
- 9 Russia
- 10 South Africa
- 11 United States
- 12 United Kingdom
- 13 Organized crime and slave trade
- 14 Mass immigration
- 15 Modern art
- 16 Science
- 17 Intellectual movements and ideologies
- 18 Proposed causes
- 19 See also
- 20 External links
- 21 References
It has been stated that the so-called Jewish homeland, Judea etc., "has throughout history only been the seat of an independent national state for a few centuries in all. No great material discovery was ever made there; no characteristic form of art was ever developed within its borders, and, except in the realms of politics and religion, its thought has been neglible."
Kevin MacDonald has argued that the historical record supports that after the failed rebellions against the Romans during the 1st and 2nd century, Jews achieved a very prominent economic position in the Roman Empire and to have dominated some industries. He writes that "Juster (1914, 305ff) notes that Jews were very prominent in certain sectors of the Roman economy, including the slave trade, banking, national and international trade, and the law. Jews had also developed monopolies in specific industries, including silk, clothing, glassware, and the trade in luxury items. Moreover, Juster (p. 312) directly connects the intensification of these economic developments in the 4th century with an increase in popular anti-Semitism, as well as with the accusations of the Church fathers during this period that Jews were characterized by avarice and cupidity. Indeed, despite the restrictions on Jews which began during this period, Juster notes that Jews completely dominated national and international trade and especially the slave trade in the 5th and 6th centuries.
This view of the continuing economic power of Jews in the 5th and 6th century is highly compatible with Bachrach 's (1985) suggestion that the Jews were so wealthy, powerful, and aggressive that until around the middle of the 5th century the government viewed a strong anti-Jewish policy as not politically viable, even though it was continually being pressured in this direction by the Church. The rather limited anti-Jewish actions of the government during the 150 years following the Edict of Toleration of 313 are interpreted “as attempts to protect Christians from a vigorous, powerful, and often aggressive Jewish gens” (Bachrach 1985, 408). The Jews themselves were perceived by the emperors, the government, and the Church fathers as “an aggressive, well-organized, wealthy, and powerful minority” (p. 408). Particularly revealing are the suggestion that the solvency of the municipalities depended on Jews paying their taxes and the fear that offending the Jews could set off widespread and costly revolts, such as the one led by Patricius in 351."
In 1902 there were 147,000 Jews in Vienna. During the 1873-1910 period Jews made up 40% of the directors of the public banks, 70% of the members of Vienna Stock Exchange, 62% of lawyers, 50% of doctors, 57% of journalists, 25% of university faculty members, and 50% of directors who had directorships in more than 7 industrial companies simultaneously.
During various years during the 1918-1929 period, 23.7% of professors, 55% of jewellers, 71% of booksellers, 35% of shoe manufacturers and 45% of hat manufacturers were Jews.
In 1934 Jews made up 2.8% (191,481) of the population of Austria. At the end of 1937 the numbers had fallen to an estimated 180,000.
Jews made up 0.1% of the population in 1937, with an estimated number of 55,000 (an increase of 5,000 since 1935).
- Joseph Safra, a Lebanese Jew, whose family had banking connections in the Ottoman Empire. The Safra family moved to Brazil in 1952. In 1955, Joseph's 23-year-old brother, Edmond, and his father, Jacob, started work in Brazil by financing assets in São Paulo. Edmond later separated from his brothers Joseph and Moise and headed to New York where he founded the Republic National Bank of New York (which he sold to HSBC in 1999). Joseph founded Banco Safra in 1955 and today it is reportedly the 6th largest private bank in Brazil. He remains the Chairman of the Safra Group offering banking services throughout Europe, North and South America. On 12 April 2016 Joseph was reported as having been arrested on a range of corruption charges.
In 1840 there were only 70,000 Jews in France, two thirds of whom lived in Alsace. In 1870 there were 24,000 Jews in Paris. From this point on Jewish immigration constantly increased the numbers. Jews were 0.2% of the population in 1890; 0.6% in 1935; 0.8% in 1940. The independence of French North Africa brought an influx of 145,000 Jews from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, bringing the total in France to 360,000 in the 1960s rising to 535,000 a decade later.. In 2002 Jews in France were said to be 0.86% of the population. Some sources give the Jewish population in France today as between 600,000 and 750,000.
In the middle of the 19th century about a third of the banks were run and owned by Jews. The Rothschilds were almost certainly the richest family in France during the 19th and 20th centuries. In the 1930s an estimated 15% of doctors were Jews. In 1895 one deputy in the French Parliament asked "what measures the government intends to take to stop the predominance of Jews in various branches of the French administration". Since 1945, at least six Jews have been the Prime Ministers.
According to the Jewish-Israeli nationalist website “Terre Promise,” Jews are massively over-represented among the 500 richest Frenchmen: three out of the top 20 (15%), nine of the top 50 (18%), 23 out of the top 50 (18%), 23 of the top 200 (11.5%) and 44 out of the top 500 (8.8%).
During the 19th century numerous changes increased their influence, including their admittance into the Freemasonry lodges of France. In 1895 Édouard Drumont's newspaper La Libre Parole organised a competition on how best Jewish power in France could be annihilated (the two prize-winners and the two runners-up were Roman Catholic priests). During the early years of the 20th century many hundreds of immigrant Jews joined the Communist Party, which at its peak in the 1930s/40s had 6,000,000 votes and many deputies and ministers as well as owning at least two large-circulation mainstream newspapers. Both Admiral François Darlan and Otto Abetz both claimed that the so-called 'Resistance' in France 1940-44 "was essentially communist", and contained many Jews such as the historian Marc Bloch, the anthropologist Anatole Lewitsky, and J.P.Levy. In addition large numbers of Jews were in the Maquis terrorist group.
France also had numerous parliamentary deputies who were Jewish including:
- Michel Goudchaux, Minister of Finance in the 1848 government.
- Isaac Crémieux, Minister of Justice in the 1848 government; and again in the 1871 post-Napoleon III government when he was responsible for giving full French citizenship to the 44,000 Jews of Algeria.
- Alfred Naquet, extreme-left deputy responsible for the law allowing divorce in 1884.
- Leon Blum, a socialist and thrice Prime Minister of France.
- Georges Mandel (born Louis George Rothschild), Minister of Posts, Minister of the Interior, etc. In August 1938 Mandel told M.Bonnet, Minister of Foreign Affairs, "there has got to be a [European] war, and the sooner the better." When President Daladier hesitated to declare war on Germany after Poland was invaded, "Mandel, Reynaud and their friends in the war party brought formidable pressure to bear upon him." The former Minister of Justice (1934) Henry Lémery relates: "at the end of February or the beginning of March 1940 Maurice de Rothschild invited me out to lunch outside Paris. He told me Mandel would call and collect me. Reynard was present. Mandel said we needed to waste no time in replacing Daladier with Reynard."
- Jean Zay was Minister of National Education and Fine Arts [sic] from 1936 until 1939. He was also a notable Freemason. His father, Leon Zay, descended from a Jewish family from Metz, was director of a radical socialist regional newspaper in Orléans.
- Pierre Mendès-France, member of the Radical Socialist Party from 1924, a very influential Jew who held numerous Ministerial posts, including under Blum, over a 30 year period. He came from a family or Portuguese Jews who settled in France in the 16th century. In June 1954, after the government of Joseph Laniel resigned, Mendès France formed a government with Communist Party support. This lasted until February 1955.
Historians are divided on the overall influence of Jews in France. But by the 1930s the Popular Front government was criticised as being a creature of Jewry, and Marcel Déat called for opposition to "the infiltration of Jewish parasites into European culture." The anti-communist author Louis-Ferdinand Céline said that the results of French elections "were determined by Jews" (referring to the Popular Front victory of 1936), and claimed that Jews dominated France politically, economically, socially and culturally. He argued that Jews were anti-semites in reverse: they wanted to dominate and abuse. He used the Jewish domination of the hierarchy of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and their control of Hollywood as examples. Although Marxists and liberals were major villains, he said, behind them, orchestrating their activities, were always the Jews. The Leader of the Croix de Feu (Cross of Fire)(CF) Movement throughout the 1930s, Colonel François de La Rocque, associated Jews with the de-Christianisation of France and with the "mortal vices" that had led to military defeat in 1940.
An example of mainstream political influence is Ferdinand Lassalle, whose Jewish family were from Breslau, a committed socialist. He was the founder of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), which still exists today. During the German Revolutions of 1848, he spoke at public meetings in favor of the revolutionary cause and urged the citizens of Düsseldorf to prepare themselves for armed resistance in advance of the violence that he expected. He was subsequently arrested for his involvement in this activity and he was charged with inciting armed opposition to the state. He was later tried on a lesser charge of inciting resistance against public officials and convicted, serving six months in prison. He was killed in a duel by an aristocrat and was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Breslau.
Jews were 1% of the German population in 1871 and 0.95% in 1910. In 1933 there were 503,720 Jews in Germany (0.8%), but this had dropped to 365,000 by the end of 1937 due to emigration and natural decrease.
In 1908-1911 Jews were 36% of prominent businessmen and 21.7% of millionaires. 31% of the 29 families owning more than 50 million marks were Jewish.
In 1925 Jews were 16% of physicians, 15% of dentists, and 25% of lawyers. In 1928 Jews held 80% of the leading positions at the Berlin stock exchange. In 1930 43% of private bankers were Jewish. In 1930 75% of playwrights were Jews as were in 1931 50% of theater directors. A "large number" of the prominent actors and actresses were Jewish.
On August 26, 1936 the British Embassy in Berlin compiled a researched report and sent it to the Foreign Office in London, stating that "in 1931 out of 3,450 lawyers in Berlin, 1,925 were Jews. In Breslau the numbers were 285 and 192, and in Frankfurt-on-Main 659 and 432 respectively. In Berlin the number of Jewish doctors was 52%, while in most towns the average was 30%. Fifteen Jewish bankers are stated to have held 718 director-ships in banks and commercial undertakings. Of theatre directors, 50.4% were Jews. Although Jews formed less than one per cent of the total population, there is a widespread feeling that they blocked the approaches to all the leading positions in the State, monopolising them for themselves." 
It is, however, a myth that the Jews were the 'cream' of the German art world when they made up less than one percent of the population. In June 1933 a census of professions recorded that just 2.04% of musicians in Germany were Jewish. What is true is that the arts gradually lost some four per cent of their fraternity - mostly Jewish. This obviously left 96% of the German fraternity in situ. Jews were subsequently prohibited from working in these posts and largely emigrated: "Most Jewish modernists recognised that it would be impossible to make a career in Germany and therefore emigrated.......Others gradually came to the realisation that they would never be accepted and many departed in the mid-to-late-1930s." Between the 1933 Census and the end of 1937 about 110,000 Jews had left Germany.
Due to different inheritance laws in Germany small shop business was not as dominated by Jews, as for example in Hungary or Poland. In Hungary each child inherited a portion, in Germany only the eldest son (or co-heiresses in the case of daughters), therefore younger children went into the cities and also took jobs as journalist or salesman.
In 1920 Jews were 54% of the owners of prominent commercial businesses, 12.5% of the owners of industrial enterprises, 60% of doctors, 51% of lawyers, 39% of privately employed engineers and chemists, 34.3% of journalists, 29% of musicians and owned 85% of banks and other financial institutions.
In 1930 Jews owned 61.7% of the commercial firms and 47.4% of the industrial firms employing more than 20 people. They were 71% of the most wealthy taxpayers.
On the 14th October 1940, in a letter to the Hungarian Prime Minister, Pál Teleki, the Royal Regent, Admiral Horthy, stated "I find it intolerable that here in Hungary every factory, bank, large fortune, business, theatre, press, commercial enterprise, etc., should be in the hands of the Jews, and that the Jew should be the image reflected of Hungary, especially abroad."
After 1945, during Communist rule, all leading positions were filled with Jews, the only exception was István Dobi, who was a Social Democrat before 1945. Culture, diplomacy, education, police, industry and also agriculture was headed by Jews. Jewish leading positions remained in 2012.
In Poland Jews were present since the earliest Middle Ages. Polish kings and noblemen often took Jews into service for tax collecting, as treasurers, or bankers. However by the 1760s it was observed that "the whole trade of the kingdom was carried on by Jews, while the masses were poor and miserable."
In 1897, Jews owned nearly 60 percent of Warsaw’s major private banks. Elsewhere in Congress Poland, this figure rose to more than 90 percent. 
Despite the very high population percentage the Jewish influence became limited after independence (1919) with Jews being excluded to varying degrees from the public institutions including higher education. Despite this, in 1931 Jews were 54% of private doctors, 43% of private school teachers (but only 2.5% of state school teachers), and 22% of journalists.
More generally, the centrist Peasant Party, in a 1935 statement, described the overall socio-economic situation as "Poles have no middle class of their own." In 1938 Jews were banned from the National Totalitarian Party membership, from the medical profession, and lawyers restricted. September was proclaimed an 'anti-Jewish month' and "was rigorously observed".
In 1937 Jews were 50% of army doctors, 80% of textile engineers, 70% of journalists, 40% of lawyers, and 99% of stockbrokers.
Jews were 4.0% of the population in 1900, 1.8% in 1926 with the decline due to factors such as the independence of Poland, Lithuania, and emigration, but back up to 2.4% in 1937. They were 1.2% in 1985, and down to 0.16% in 2002 with the decline due to the loss of the Ukraine plus emigration, mainly to Israel.
In 1889 Jews were 43% of apprentice lawyers. In 1910 they were 35% of the mercantile class. In Kiev in 1914 they were 37% of managers.
Jews were 2% of the population of St. Petersburg before WWI. During various year during the 1881-1915 period they were 43% of stock brokers, 41% of pawnbrokers, 27% of business owners, 16% of brothel owners, 32% of lawyers, 17% of doctors, 52% of dentists, and 40% of bank managers.
With the October Revolution (q.v.) Jewish ascendency seemed to reach new heights. On August 7, 1918, the British Agent in Moscow, Mr Wardrop, sent a despatch to the British Embassy at Stockholm for forwarding to the Foreign Office in London, in which he described the Russian leaders as "fanatics and Jewish adventurers." The Netherlands Ambassador at Petrograd sent a formal detailed report to the British Embassy in Christiana (Oslo) a month later, dated 6th September, in which he described the Bolshevik Government in Russia as being "organised and run by Jews". The British Consul in Vladivostock telegraphed Earl Curzon in London a report from British Consul in Ekaterinburg stating "the Bolsheviks include a large non-Russian element such as Jews, the latter being especially numerous in the higher posts." A further report from Ekaterinburg on February 6, 1919 stated [the] "Bolshevik leaders do not represent the Russian working classes, most of them being Jews." The Rev. Bousfield S. Lombard, a military and naval Chaplain, who had been for ten years in Russia and in Petrograd throughout the Revolution, reported to Earl Curzon on March 23, 1919, that the revolution "is being carried out by international Jews". As businesses became paralysed (after the February Revolution), "Jews [also] became possessors of most of the business houses." In 2013 president Putin admitted that in the first Soviet government, 80 to 85 percent of its members were Jews.
One of Vladimir Lenin's grandmothers was a Jewess and Leon Trotsky, fully Jewish, led the Red Army. The two first official heads of Soviet state as well as the first Communist leaders of Moscow and St. Petersburg were Jews. More generally, 40% of the top Red Army officers, 31% of the Bolshevik delegates at the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets, 37% of the Bolshevik delegates at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, and about 25% of the Party's Central Committee in 1919-21 were Jews. When the secret police, the Cheka, was created in 1918, Jews were 19% of the investigators and 50% of the investigators employed in the department for "counter-terrorism". In 1923 the Cheka became the OGPU under Polish Jew Genrikh Grigoryevich Yagoda. Jews that year made up 50% of the governing secretariat of the OGPU and 15% of the top officials. The OGPU became the NKVD in 1934 under Nikolai_Yezhov. Including him, Jews that year were 63% of the senior officials.
Still surrounded by large numbers of Jews in prominent positions, by 1939, the year Stalin made an alliance with Hitler, he started to become suspicious about the loyalty of the Jews. This increased acutely with the creation of Israel in 1948, a state he suspected Russian Jews might be more loyal to than the Soviet Union. Consequently various purges took place in order to reduce the Jewish influence including a shutting down of all Jewish writers organizations and theatres in 1948-52, the arrest of many Jewish writers, the shooting of 14 out of 15 of the members of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, and exclusion of Jews from top bureaucratic positions. The purges stopped after Stalin died in March 1953. However, measures such as maximum quotas of Jews in education and employment continued to try to limit Jewish influence, at least regarding top positions. Outside of these Jews continued to be greatly over-represented in professional occupations.
48 of the 200 richest Russians were Jews according to a 2014 analysis.
The United States has the largest Jewish population of any nation on Earth (Israel included!), and the largest percentage of any country (1.78), apart from Israel.
Jews were 3.55% of the population between 1927-37, but said to have dropped to 2.0% by 2002. However, 5.2 million people in the USA identify themselves as Jews plus, in addition, there are 1,600,000 Jewish children. Over 60 per cent of American Jews live in just six states: just over 20% in New York State (with NY city and Rhode Island having up to 15%), 14% in California (mainly in Los Angeles, and, to a lesser extent, San Francisco), 12% in southern Florida, 8% in New Jersey (which is the next state to New York), and 5% each in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. The Jewish population of the USA is considered to be in the ascent rather than a decline. About half of the world's Jews (46%) live in North America.
In 2000 Jews were more than a quarter of those on the Forbes Magazine list of the 400 wealthiest Americans, a third of all multi-millionaires,¨and 45% of the 40 wealthiest Americans. In 2007 Forbes listed the world's billionaires, some 946 names in total, with Americans making up about 400. Of the top 20 American billionaires 35% are Jewish. Elsewhere it has been reported that of 25 billionaires based in New York City 76% are Jewish.
In 2009 they were 32% of those on the Forbes Magazine list of the 400 wealthiest Americans. Because of this wealth they are able to exercise undue influence and placements.
The American perfume magnate, Estée Lauder (1908-2004), is an example. Her birth name was Josephine Esther Mentzer. Her Jewish parents were first generation immigrants to the USA from Hungary. She married a Mr Joseph Lauder (a Scottish Presbyterian surname) in New York. She brought her children up as Jews. Leonard became the chief executive of Estée Lauder companies and then chairman of the board. Ronald Lauder was a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense in the Ronald Reagan administration and was U.S. Ambassador to Austria in 1986–87. He is now President of the World Jewish Congress.
Jews are more than twice as likely as other Americans to be college graduates. A 1969 survey found that at the 17 most prestigious universities Jews were 20%-36% of faculty members. The three faculties with the highest percentages were law, sociology, and economics. A study regarding the situation in 1974 found that Jews costituted 50% of the top "intellectuals", which was defined as having published in the top twenty intellectual journals. They were 56% of top social scientists and 61% of those in the humanities. A study from the mid-1970s stated that Jews made up 27% of all U.S.-born Nobel Prize winners (without giving the names of those who nominated them). Assessors in 1995 stated that Jews accounted for 20% of Professors at leading universities and that at least since the 1970s they have "composed about half of the American intellectual elite. This was still true in the mid-1990s.
In the Vanity Fair magazine's 2007 list of the world's 100 most powerful or influential individuals, 53% are Jewish and most of these are Jewish-Americans.
A 1994 article published the profiles of the 34 most influential media people. 48% were Jews.
US newspapers have become largely Jewish-owned owned. Examples are the pro-Israeli and pro-Zionist New York Times and the influential Washington Post which have been owned and largely staffed by Jews, USA Today, Wall Street Journal (before its purchase by Murdoch), the Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune and the New York Daily News (3rd largest New York paper). The three largest news magazines Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News & World Report are largely owned and run by Jews. The Condé Nast empire, owned by Samuel Newhouse, includes Vanity Fair, The New Yorker'', Wired, and Vogue. A 1982 article noted that "The most widely read American Journals like Commentary, The Public Interest, The New York Review of Books, New Republic, and Partisan Review are either explicitly Jewish or contain a disproportionate Jewish input." The "chronically pro-Israel" The New Republic and The Weekly Standard are also Jewish-owned.
As to radio, perhaps the most striking example is National Public Radio (NPR)whose on-air staff are over half Jewish. It is not uncommon to hear a Jewish programme host interviewing a Jewish expert about some other prominent Jewish-American. References to the Holocaust or Judaism pop up frequently, even in stories that have no ostensible connexion. NPR's in fluence is substantial. Affiliate stations are widely distributed throughout the country, reaching over 26 million listeners. With 860 stations (an average of 17 per state), it is often possible to pick up identical programming on three or more stations simultaneously.
Jews founded several of the major film studio in Hollywood. They have been very prominent as proprietors, producers and stars, although the last group have often changed their Jewish names.
A 1980 study stated that Jews then were 30% of the "media elite", defined as those working at the leading TV news divisions, newspapers, and news magazines. They were 46% of directors and producers of Hollywood TV and 66% of directors and producers of Hollywood movies. A 1990 article listed the top 10 entertainment companies in term of revenues and their CEOs. Eight of the CEOs were Jews. An article in 1999 stated that "any list of the most influential production executives at each of the major movie studies will produce a heavy majority of Jewish names".
A 2008 article by Jewish journalist Joel Stein noted that all the top executives of the major film studios who that year signed an open letter regarding a labor dispute with the Screen Actors Guild were Jewish. As were the president of the Screen Actors Guild and the "super-agent" who wrote a response to the open letter. The author had to "scour the trades" to find six non-Jews in high positions at entertainment companies. Five refused to be interviewed "apparently out of fear of insulting Jews." The sixth turned out to be a Jew. In fact Stein rather matter-of-factly states "Jew totally run Hollywood", citing the names of all the major studio bosses at Disney, Sony, Warner Bros, CBS, MGM, Universal, Weinstein Co.
In 2011 an author and apparent Right-wing Jew, Ben Shapiro, published a new book entitled Primetime Propaganda - The True Hollywood Story of how The Left took over your TV. It told the inside story of how the most powerful medium of mass communication in human history has become a propaganda tool for The Left; of how television has been used over the past sixty years by Hollywood writers, producers, actors, and executives to promote their liberal-left ideals and to shape the world in their own leftist image. Shapiro reveals that the 'controllers' and most of the aforementioned people in Hollywood have always been Jewish and that the only reason several of them granted him an interview was because he was Jewish.. A study and report in London in 2012 found that sex scenes in Hollywood films made children more promiscuous.
Government & Foreign policy
Prominent Jewish-Americans focus their efforts on the support and defence of Israel - hence the term "Israel Lobby" - but they also seek to combat their version of anti-Semitism: any criticism of Jews or Israel, no matter how well-justified, notably, of course, the Holocaust story. The Lobby has had high-level contacts in government since the beginning of the 20th century but it grew exponentially in power during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations of the 1960s. The Six-Day War in 1967 catapulted the Lobby to the top of the Washington power pyramid. In its present form the Israel Lobby consists of several components: individual Jews, pro-Israel think tanks, Jewish organisations, prominent neo-conservatives, and sympathetic non-Jews such as Christian Zionists. The whole process is co-ordinated by an umbrella organisation, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) which for the past 30 and more years has been the most powerful and most feared organisation in Washington. A 1997 Fortune magazine poll rated them the second-most powerful lobby, behind the 38 million-member American Association of Retired Persons! This ranking was reconfirmed in 2005. Congressional influence is driven by AIPAC and by the campaign money that it directs to favoured candidates. AIPAC conducts a rigorous vetting process to determine who are the "true friends" of Jewry, and those candidates, once "certified kosher", can expect financial support. If a candidate is perceived to be an enemy of the Jewish people, for instance by opposing unconditional aid to Israel, or by insisting on just treatment for Palestinians, then AIPAC and the Lobby will pull out all the stops to defeat him by giving massive support to his opponent. There is a list of a number of these 'victims'. A notable example was in 1984 with the defeat of Senator Charles Percy, which had the AIPAC stating "All the Jews in America, from coast to coast, gathered to oust Percy. And the American politicians got the message." It has been said by assessors of this influence "that AIPAC has an almost unchallenged hold on Congress." Perhaps the most important, Jewish influence was decisive in causing the United States to start and continue the war in Iraq. In March 2003 US Representative James Moran said "If it were not for the strong support of the Jewish community for this war with Iraq, we would not be doing this."
This influence extends all the way to the White House. The New York Times reported that "Jews contributed about 60% of Bill Clinton's non-institutional campaign funds in 1992". Consequently Clinton appointed many Jews to high-ranking positions. In 2003 the Washington Post reported: "Democratic Presidential candidates depend on Jewish supporters to supply as much as 60% of the money raised from private sources. In May 2008, when Barack Obama was seeking the Democratic nomination, he made a point of emphasising his support for Israel as a "Jewish State" and declaring it to be a "fundamentally just idea". Immediately upon earning the nomination in June his very first step was a meeting and speech at the AIPAC, where he pronounced himself a "true friend of Israel" and promised his "unshakeable commitment to Israel's security." One month late he was in Israel laying a wreath at the Holocaust Memorial dutifully wearing a skull cap. Upon winning the Presidency, Obama's first nomination was Rahm Emanuel into the top post as Chief of Staff. Not merely a Jewish-American, he was raised in an extremist household, his father having been a member of the Irgun terrorist organisation which was active against the British in Palestine in the 1930s and 1940s. Emanuel had previously hand-picked 22 candidates to run in the 2006 U.S. House races, all in favour of the war against Iraq. Jimmy Carter nicely summarised the situation in an April 2008 interview with the Arab news agency Al-Jazeera: "you have to understand that in the USA it is impossible for any candidate for President, Governor, Senate, or the House of Representatives, to get elected if they publicly contradict the policies of the Israeli government." Fast-forward to Joe-Biden, who will become president in January 2021. In 2009 Biden stated "I am a Zionist".
With respect to the United Nations, the United States can be counted on to cover for any and all Israeli indiscretions. Since 1972 the USA has vetoed forty-two Security Council resolutions critical of Israel, more than all other vetoes from all other permanent members combined.
Jewish influence on USA foreign policy is apparent in many studies. The New York Times reported at length on the International Jewish Boycott Conference, held in Amsterdam in late July 1933 with the aim of placing full sanctions on Germany in response to them democratically electing the new National Socialist Government. Samuel Untermayer of New York, President of the World Jewish Economic Federation, presided. Returning to the USA, Mr Untermayer described the planned Jewish moves against Germany as a "holy war....a war that must be waged unremittingly." Mr Untermayer had the ear of President Roosevelt. In a report from Count Potocki, the Polish Ambassador in Washington DC, he warned his government in 1939 of the campaign that was being organised pressing for war with Germany in which various Jewish intellectuals took part, such as Bernard Baruch, Frankfurter, a Justice of the Supreme Court, Morgenthau, Secretary of the US Treasury, and others linked to Roosevelt, some of whom held many of the highest posts in the American Government. William C. Bullitt, jnr., whose mother was Jewish, worked in the Roosevelt Administration and had been working to convince Poland not to negotiate with Germany, while also pressuring the British government to take pro-active steps against Germany. It has been argued that the Jewish community in America and Britain was determined to drive Britain into a war with Germany, and used all of their financial and political leverage, notably via media, in order to bring about that very eventuality.
The influence of the Israel lobby on US foreign policy has been described as enormous, for example in the book The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. The authors have stated that the "situation has no equal in American political history". In 1997 members of Congress and their staffs ranked the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (only one part of the lobby) as the second most influential organization in Washington, after the American Association of Retired People but before organizations such as the National Rifle Association and the trade union organization the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations.
See "External links" below.
In 2021 the United States is rather as the world's lone military superpower. It is also the global centre for Holocaust study and scholarship in which American (primarily Jewish-American) money and influence are the leading factors in promoting the so-called Holocaust. 
Jews were 0.6% of the population (300,000) in 1931. These numbers had dropped to 263,346 in 2011. Their influence is grossly disproportionate in the United Kingdom to their numbers. A 2002 survey of Jewish media control in the United Kingdom was published in the report "Near Total Zionist Jewish Control Of The British Media"
- Dan Rosenfield is Chief of Staff (commenced 1 January 2021) to Boris Johnson, UK Prime Minister. Rosenfield was previously Managing Director at the Bank of America and is chairman of the World Jewish Relief. He describes Judaism as being "pretty central" to his life.
Media and the BBC
Other examples include:
- Michael 'Grade' (real surname is Winogradsky), now 'Lord' Grade, joined BBC TV in 1984 as Controller of BBC One. Later he became Director of Programmes in 1986, and Managing Director Designate in 1987. The following year he became Chief Executive of Channel Four TV.He was Chairman of the BBC from 2nd April 2004 to 2006 and Executive Chairman of Independent TV Corp from 2007 to 2009. In 2011 he was made a Conservative Party Life Peer. On 19 September 2006, Grade became non-executive chairman of online food delivery company Ocado. His wife is Penelope Jane Levinson.
- Jeremy Isaacs, son of a jeweller, worked for the BBC in the 1960s, was Director of Programmes for Thames TV 1974-1978, and was the founding Chief Executive (1981-1987) of Channel 4, a TV channel devoted to the promotion of non-indigenous people and their 'rights' in the UK. In 1987 Isaacs became General Director of the Royal Opera House, London, until 1996. From 1990 to 1998 he acted as interviewer in a revival of the BBC series Face to Face, and between 1997 and 2000 he was President of the Royal Television Society. He is currently Chairman of Sky Arts.
- David Abraham, Chief Executive of the UK's Channel Four Television Corporation. He was previously Chief Executive of UKTV.
- Melanie Phillips, journalist, whose family came from Poland & Russia, who started writing for far-left newspaper The Guardian and the socialist magazine New Statesman. During the 1990s she moved to the political centre, and currently writes for The Times, Jerusalem Post and Jewish Chronicle. She defines herself as a liberal and is married to Joshua Rozenberg, a legal journalist employed by the BBC.
- David Aaranovitch, a self-declared communist who is the son of active communists, started his media career in the early 1980s as a television researcher and later producer for the ITV program, Weekend World. In 1988 he began working at BBC as founding editor of the On the Record. From 1995 he worked for The Independent and Independent on Sunday as chief leader writer, television critic, parliamentary sketch writer and columnist until the end of 2002; then The Guardian and The Observer in 2003 as a columnist and feature writer. Since June 2005, he has a regular column for The Times. He also writes a regular column for The Jewish Chronicle. Aaronovitch has also written for a variety of other major British news and opinion publications, such as the New Statesman, and the New Humanist and is an "honorary associate" of its publisher, the Rationalist Association. Aaronovitch also presents or contributes to radio and television programmes, including the BBC's Have I Got News For You and BBC News 24. In 2004 he presented The Norman Way, a three-part BBC Radio 4 documentary looking at "régime change" in 1066. He also hosted the BBC series The Blair Years (2007). The BBC selection of Aaronovitch to interview Blair was criticized by the Daily Mails Peter Oborne, who stated in July 2007 that "over the past ten years Aaronovitch has never... ceased to extend a helping hand to Tony Blair..., Aaronovitch cannot be regarded as an independent figure who could be trusted to interrogate a former prime minister on behalf of the British public."
- Noreena Hertz, "a Left-wing academic with no journalistic credentials" appointed Economics Editor at ITV's News at Ten. TV presenter Jeremy Clarkson asked her if she was a communist. "No," she replied, "a Marxist". Clarkson asked: "What's the difference?" She is married to the BBC's Danny Cohen. She is the great-granddaughter of Chief Rabbi Joseph H Hertz.
Jews head up numerous far-left lobby groups and often hold influential positions. Nepotism plays a role. An example is the registered charity Index on Censorship (founded with the innocent-sounding title of "The Writers and Scholars Educational Trust"), chaired by the Jewish communist journalist David Aaronovitch, who writes for, amongst other organs, The Daily Telegraph newspaper. He has appointed Jodie Ginsberg, Chief Executive. She was previously with the so-called think-tank Demos, and was former London Bureau Chief for the news agency Reuters. In addition she was previously 'Head of Communications' for Camfed, a non-profit organisation working in girls' education.
A further example involving significant influence through left-wing lobby groups, politics, and the legal profession, is the Jewish barrister Anthony Lester, a left-wing socialist but who now sits in the House of Lords as a Liberal Democrat Life Peer. In the 1960s and 1970s Lester was directly involved with the drafting of race relations legislation in Britain. During these periods, he acted as the chairman of the legal sub-committee of the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination and was a member of several organizations working for racial equality such as the Society of Labour Lawyers, the socialist Fabian Society, the Council of the Institute of Race Relations, the British Overseas Socialist Fellowship and the National Committee for Commonwealth Immigrants. In 1968, he co-founded with another Jewish left-wing journalist Jim Rose the Runnymede Trust, the far-left think-tank, and was its chairman 1991-3. He was a special advisor to Roy Jenkins at the UK Home Office in the 1970s, and moved with Jenkins from the Labour Party to found the Social Democratic Party in 1981. On 29 June 2007, Lester was appointed by socialist Prime Minister Gordon Brown as a special advisor on constitutional reform to the Secretary of State for Justice. He is a member of the Joint Committee on Human Rights. Lester is also a patron of the Family Planning Association, previously called the National Birth Control Committee. He represented the FPA in a contentious case in Northern Ireland where it was widely claimed that the FPA were trying to use strategic litigation to introduce liberalised abortion laws.
Israel Sieff (d.1972) was a member of the Zionist Commission which visited Palestine in 1918 under the leadership of Chaim Weizmann. The son of Lithuanian Jews, he was chairman of the British retailer Marks & Spencer from 1964 to 1967. Sieff endowed the 1934 creation, by Chaim Weizmann, of the Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot in present-day Israel. In 1966 under Harold Wilson's socialist government he became a Life Peer.
Another seriously bad influence in the legal profession (in addition to Anthony Lester) is the communist Stephen Sedley (corrupted surname), son of Solomon Seletsky, a Jewish immigrant and life-long communist who, in the 1940s, founded the firm of lawyers of Seifert and Sedley with another Jew, Sigmund Seifert. Sedley himself became a barrister and was involved in cases which broadened the scope of Judicial Reviews and established the modern procedure for a Judicial Review in the High Court of England. He was employed in ground-breaking court cases in relation to employment rights, sex and race discrimination, prisoners’ rights, coroners’ inquests, immigration and asylum and freedom of speech - all the usual left-wing causes. He was made a Queen's Counsel in 1983 and was appointed a High Court Judge in 1992, serving in the Queen's Bench Division. In 1999 he was appointed to the Court of Appeal as a Lord Justice of Appeal. He was a Judge ad hoc of the European Court of Human Rights and an ad hoc Member of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Sedley recently called for far more than 20,000 "refugees" and "asylum seekers" to be admitted annually into the United Kingdom.
- Michael Oppenheimer (b.1946) is a Jewish High Court Judge in London. Also a member of The Athenaeum Club. He is a member of the South African Oppenheimer family of diamond magnates.
- Simon Brown (b.1937) is a Supreme Court Judge in London. His parents are Denis Baer Brown and Edna Abrahams.
- John Dyson (b. 1943) is a Supreme Court Judge in London. His grandparents were Jews from Lithuania; his mother is Bulgarian and he was taught the piano by Fanny, the daughter of Myer Waterman, a Russian Jew. Dyson [an adopted old English surname] is a close personal friend of:
- David Neuberger (b.1948) a Supreme Court Judge in London. From a wholly Jewish family, upon graduation he worked for several years at the merchant bank, N M Rothschild & Sons. His brother's wife is Rabbi Julia Neuberger, née Schwab. He was one of the judges who, in January 2017, attempted to hinder the British government's exit from the European Union.
- Harry Woolf (b.1933) was Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales 2000-2005. His grandfather Harry was a Polish or Russian Jew. Woolf, an Ashkenazi Jew, met his wife Marguerite Sassoon, a Sephardi Jew, at the National Liberal Club.
- Leonard Hoffman, (b.1934) was a Lord of Appeal in the English High Court 1995-2009. He was the son of a Jewish solicitor in Cape Town who co-founded what has become Africa's largest law firm, Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs. A leading supporter of the communist group Amnesty International his decision to detain General Augusto Pinochet in London was found to be biased and set aside.
- Desmond Ackner (1920-2006) was a Lord of Appeal in the English High court. He was the son of a Jewish dentist, Conrad Ackner, from Vienna.
- Simon Brown (b.1937) now 'Lord' Brown, is a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. His mother was Edna née Abrahams.
- Johan van Zyl Steyn (1932-2017) was a South African then a British judge; until September 2005 a Law Lord. As a result of his opposition to the separate development of the races (apartheid) in South Africa, he moved to the UK in 1973, joining the English Bar and building an international commercial law practice. His judicial work in the House of Lords was instrumental in weaving the Human Rights Act 1998 into the fabric of English law. As a Law Lord he achieved prominence for his liberal-left views. He was a fierce critic of Augusto Pinochet's rights to immunity from prosecution and he was an open critic of Camp X-ray at Guantanamo Bay. He was one of the very few senior judges to support calls for the "modernisation" of the English legal system and the abolition of the thousand year-old role of Lord Chancellor.
- Sir Michael Alexander Geddes Sachs (1932-2003) was the first solicitor in England to be appointed as a High Court judge.
- Ruth Deech, a lawyer, daughter of Polish-Jewish journalist Josef Fraenkel. In December 2016 Deech argued that Jewish students at UK universities were subject to increasing anti-semitism. She is a Patron of the activist group UK Lawyers for Israel. She was a member of the UK Jewish Leadership Council until 2010, and a founding Trustee of the Mandela Rhodes Foundation. In 1999, The Observer newspaper named her as the 107th most powerful person in Britain, and in 2001, Deech was placed at no.26 in Channel 4's "The God List", which ranked "the fifty people of faith in Britain who exercise the most power and influence over our lives". In November 2007, Deech published IVF to Immortality: Controversy in the Era of Reproductive Technology, with co-author Anna Smajdor. She is now a Life Peer. Described as a "A Jewish peer" she launched a blistering attack on Poland for "squatting on the property of three million" Holocaust victims, during a House of Lords debate on restitution in May 2019. She said that country was “the most egregious offender” when it came to returning Nazi-looted art as though all three million were super-rich.
Jews own the controlling interests in Marks and Spencer (Marks swindled Spencer out of his share but kept his name in the title so that it would sound English), Tesco, the supermarket chain founded by Jack Cohen, and Sainsbury's supermarket chain. Jewish brides married into this family and it is as a result today Jewish. The Life Peer Lord Sainsbury is a socialist and gives donations to the Labour Party. Sir James Goldsmith, Sir Philip Green, are but two of the legion of Jewish asset strippers which have made them rich while putting thousands of people out of work.
In the first half of the twentieth century a leading and shadowy Jewish figure in the commercial world of England was Robert Waley Cohen. He joined the Shell Company in 1901 and negotiated its merger with the Royal Dutch Oil Company, 1906. He was a director of the merged company and chief assistant to its managing director. He was the petroleum adviser to the Army Council during The Great War, for which he was awarded a KBE in 1920 by the Conservative Government. He retired from Shell in 1928 but became chairman of the African & Eastern Trade Corporation the following year. He negotiated a merger with the Niger Company into the United Africa Company in 1929. He was the main creator of the Palestine Corporation (a conglomerate with various diverse business interests). He was also Vice-Chairman of University College, London, and President of the United Synagogue. After the rise of Hitler in Germany he part-funded and played a crucial role in the notorious anti-German Focus Group of liberals and socialists determined to go to war with Churchill as Prime Minister.
Jewish criminals in the commercial sphere abound. William Stern (born Vilmos György Stern in Budapest, Hungary,) was the businessman most notable as the owner of the British Stern Group of companies. When it collapsed in 1973, Stern became Britain's biggest bankrupt with debts of £118 million. The uninsured losses sustained by thousands of investors led directly to the creation of Britain's first Policyholders' Protection Act.
Possibly London's most infamous slum landlord was Perec ("Peter") Rachman, a Polish Jew born in Lemberg, Galicia, in 1919, the son of a dentist. The Soviets sent him to a labour camp in the Arctic Circle but was later drafted into their "Polish" army corps, his part of which was sent to Italy in 1943. In 1946 he sailed for England. The following year he was in a resettlement camp in Oxfordshire and the following year took his first job in Cohen's veneer factory. He subsequently worked washing dishes at Bloom's, the well-known Jewish café in Whitechapel. He then went to work in a Jewish tailor's shop. In 1950 he was living in a Paddington bedsit "surrounded by prostitutes". he opened a letting agency in Westbourne Grove and in 1954 formed his first two two companies. He went on to become Britain's most notorious and hated landlord with vast swathes of properties, employing negro thugs to beat tenants senseless or evict them without notice on the flimsiest of pretexts. His appalling behaviour led to the introduction of the 1965 Rent Act in parliament.
In 1993 Gerald Ronson, a relation of Malcolm Rifkind and Leon Brittan and proprietor of Heron International (by the early 1980s Heron was one of the largest private companies in the United Kingdom, with assets of over £1.5 billion, but the company was over-extended and by the 1990s had virtually collapsed with debts of £2.4 billion owed to 89 banks and 15,000 bondholders), Larry Parnes, the stockbroker, and Ernest Saunders (real surname Schleyer) of Guinness, and Robert Miller of Dunsdale Securities, were all in prison for multi-million pound frauds. Jack Lyons, convicted with Ronson & co, had escaped to Switzerland.
Sir Isaac Wolfson was the son of a Jewish cabinet maker, Solomon Wolfson, an immigrant from Rajgród, Poland. In 1932, Isaac Wolfson joined Great Universal Stores (founded in 1900 as a mail order business in Manchester, England by Abraham, George and Jack Rose, also Jews) as merchandise controller. He became joint managing director in the same year (a miraculous promotion) until 1947; and chairman 1947–1987. From 1948 he donated significant sums to Zionist charities at the urging of his friend Israel Sieff. Later, the Edith and Isaac Wolfson Trust financed two housing projects in Israel, both called Kiryat Wolfson. Harold MacMillan had him created a Baronet in 1962.
Sir Samuel Goldman KCB (1912-2007) was the youngest son of Jewish immigrants. His father and brothers worked in the clothing business but at the age of 17 he entered the London School of Economics. In 1934 he gained an MSc for a thesis titled "English Theory of Capital from a Hayekian Viewpoint. Friedrich Hayek himself approved the thesis.) He worked for Moody’s Economist Services, 1934–38, the Jewish bankers Joseph Sebag & Co., 1938–39 and the Bank of England, 1940–47. He joined the British Civil Service in 1947, first in the Central Statistical Office then transferred to the Treasury in September 1947, becoming the Second Permanent Secretary in 1968. In 1972 he became chairman of Henry Ansbacher Holdings (this merchant bank went bankrupt in January 2014. It had been involved in numerous scandals over the years, its director the 3rd Lord Spens was charged with dishonest dealing in the Guinness fraud scandal and its chairman in 1992 was an advisor to the Jewish fraudster Robert Maxwell in a deal which was subsequently passed to the Serious Fraud Office). He was later managing director of the very shady Orion Bank.
Arts and Advertising
Jews have been prominent in promoting degenerate art in the United Kingdom, promoting the works of Henry Moore and Francis Bacon amongst others, with "art" from Africa, Asia, the Americas and the Pacific region.
Notable amongst these promoters is the Baghdad-born Orthodox Jew, Charles Saatchi, who, with his brother Maurice, founded a major advertising agency (UK advertising agencies are notorious for promoting multi-racialism and multi-culturalism) which grew to be the largest in the world. He developed an obsession with USA "pop culture", including Elvis Presley, Little Richard and Chuck Berry. He also manifested an enthusiasm for collections, from cigarette cards and jukeboxes to Superman comics and nudist magazines. He has said that his inspiration for degenerate art came from visits to the Museum of Modern Art in New York. He subsequently began patronising degenerate artists and similar works and promotes them. His gallery is in Chelsea. Saatchi's second wife was Kay Hartenstein a Jewish-American Condé Nast advertising executive. Saatchi's third wife is the Jewish author and cook Nigella Lawson.
- David Abrahams, a Jewish property developer is a notable donor to the Labour Party in the United Kingdom. His father was a former Marxist and local government councillor for the Labour Party.
- Lord Sainsbury has provided the Labour Party with millions of pounds in funding.
Organized crime and slave trade
See Jews and immigration.
In relatively modern times, Jews, having gained entrance to State education systems, have become prominent in many scientific areas. For example, there is a very large over-representation of Jews among Nobel Prize winners. There are numerous reasons for this, including their nepotic over-representation in their respective fields, plus the nominations.
A criticism regarding the high Jewish over-representation among Nobel Prize winners: "Higher IQs and preferential choice of science as a profession among Jews do not fully explain this J-bias. It is more likely that extensive and well-organized personal networking of a marketing type among Jewish scientists, together with the egalitarian-liberal, nonchalant attitude of the Swedish representatives of the Donor, are responsible for this unfortunate phenomenon."
See also the above section "United States: Academia".
Intellectual movements and ideologies
Jews have created, financed, or otherwise been very prominent in several and often controversial intellectual movements and ideologies such as
- Marxism (for example, Karl Marx) - see also Jews and Communism
- Psychoanalysis (for example, Sigmund Freud)
- The Frankfurt school (for example, Felix Weil)
- Race denialism, eugenics denialism, and genetics denialism (for example, Franz Boas)
- Randian Objectivism (for example, Ayn Rand)
- Neoconservatism (for example, various Jewish billionaires)
Among religious Jews Torah study is of paramount importance but has relatively little influence on non-Jews.
Richard Lynn has argued that the measured high IQ of Ashkenazi Jews (see Jews and intelligence) is one explanation for the Jewish influence and over-representation on various socioeconomic variables. Almost all Jews outside of Israel are Ashkenazi Jews.
However, Lynn has argued that the measured average IQ is not high enough to able to explain all of the very large Jewish influence and over-representations. Other factors must also contribute. He therefore examined other possible explanation such as the commonly proposed explanation involving a high cultural value placed by Jews on studiousness. The "General Social Survey" uses samples representative of the American population and collects information about respondent's cultural values as measured by the values parents would most like in their children. Lynn stated that the survey results showed no differences between Jews and non-Jews regarding the importance placed on values such as "Studiousness; "that he is a good student"" and "Success: "that he tries hard to succeed"".
Regarding differences, if asking for the most important value, then Jews placed statistically significantly lower value on "Honesty" and statistically significantly higher value on "Judgement" than non-Jews. For example, 26.3% of Jews and 37.8% of Protestants thought that "Honesty" was the most important value and 32.0% of Jews and 16.9% of Protestants thought that "Judgement" was the most important value.
If asking for the three most important values, then Jews placed lower values on "Honesty", "Obedience", "Manners", and "Cleanliness" and higher values on "Judgement", "Interest", "Considerateness", and "Responsibility".
Regardless, Lynn stated that he thought that these not very politically correct differences could not explain the Jewish influence and over-representation. This since he stated he could not easily see how they could contribute to Jewish success and since he thought that the differences were overall relatively small. A possible exception was regarding "Interest: "that he is interested in why and how things happen"" which could possibly contribute to the Jewish over-representation in science.
Lynn instead argued that a high or different Jewish motivation for achievement could be an explanation. For example, one study found that Jews did more homework and watched less television than non-Jews. Another study of American medical students found that Jews placed higher value on high income and high prestige than other groups.
Kevin MacDonald has in connection with the Jewish group evolutionary strategy argued for explanations such as high Jewish ethnocentrism, preferential in-group altruism towards other Jews, and high ethnic networking between Jews.
He has also argued that Whites are greatly under-represented and Jews are greatly over-represented as students at elite universities in the United States. The over-representation of Jews was argued to be too large for it to be due to IQ differences. In particular poor Whites and Whites from non-urban Whites were argued to be discriminated against. "These data strongly suggest that Jewish overrepresentation at elite universities has nothing to do with IQ but with discrimination against non-Jewish White Americans, especially those from the working class or with rural origins."
Also other have argued for very large Jewish overrepresenations that are far too large to be explained by IQ differences. "On the basis of academic achievement, Unz estimates that Jews should be around 6% of top students, far lower than the ~25% found at Ivy League universities, terming this gap “totally absurd and ridiculous.”"
An argued example of Jewish ethnic networking is regarding the Russian oligarchs (who have been stated to often be Jewish). David Duke has argued that the Russian President Boris Yeltsin, influenced by several prominent American Jewish advisors and a Jewish Privatization Minister, as part of the privatizing and reforming of the economy, issued vouchers to the population, which would be exchanged for shares in privatized companies. With the economy in free fall, people were willing to sell those vouchers on the cheap to anyone who would pay cash. International Jewish financiers, like George Soros, provided cash to certain Russian Jews. These Jews then able to buy up massive amounts of vouchers and take control of the privatized state assets. The international financiers could not do it themselves, because they were not Russian citizens.
- A Brief Look at Jewish Wealth
- A Straight Look at the Jewish Lobby
- Who Rules America
- Unexamined, Unquestioned, Unchallenged: Jewish Power in Brave New Britain
- Who runs Hollywood? C'mon
Websites and article archives
- Codoh: Jewish Power + Influence
- The Occidental Observer: Jewish Influence
- The Purity Spiral: Semitic Controversies
- Who Controls America?
- Richard Lynn. The Chosen People: A Study of Jewish Intelligence and Achievement. 2011. Washington Summit Publishers. http://www.unz.com/book/richard_lynn__the-chosen-people/
- Debating the Holocaust - A New Look at Both Sides, by Dr. Thomas Dalton, PhD., New York, 2009, p.236.ISBN-13: 978-3-59148-005-1
- Dalton, 2009, p.236.
- Robinson, Professor Theodore, H., D.D., et al., Palestine in General History, published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press, 1929, p.3.
- Kevin MacDonald. Separation and Its Discontents Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism. Praeger. 1998.
- Kevin MacDonald. Jewish Intelligence. The Occidental Observer. http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2012/07/jewish-intelligence/
- Baedeker, Karl, Austria-Hungary, Leipzig, 1905, p.12.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year 1938, London, 1938, "Distribution of the Jewish Race" p.354-5.
- Britannica 1938, p.355.
- Zeldin, Theodore, France 1848-1945, in the Oxford History of Modern Europe series, Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1977, republished 1988, p.1036-8. ISBN 0-19-822125-8
- Zeldin, 1988, p.1038.
- Menes, A., Judische Rundschau, Berlin, 4 June 1937.
- Gildea, Robert, France since 1945, Oxford University Press, U.K., 1996, p.137, ISBN 0-19-219246-9
- “As Happy as God in France”: The state of French Jewish elites, Part 1 http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2014/05/as-happy-as-god-in-france-the-state-of-french-jewish-elites-part-1/
- “As Happy as God in France”: The state of French Jewish elites, Part 2 http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2014/05/as-happy-as-god-in-france-the-state-of-french-jewish-elites-part-2/
- Paul-Éric Blanrue and the Jews: From Celebration to Censorship http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2015/09/paul-eric-blanrue-and-the-jews-from-celebration-to-censorship/
- The Lobby-That-Doesn’t-Exist”: Politicians and Pundits on Jewish Influence in France http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2015/10/%EF%BB%BF-the-lobby-that-doesnt-exist-politicians-and-pundits-on-jewish-influence-in-france/
- The Culture of Critique in France: A review of Anne Kling’s books on Jewish influence, Part 1 http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2015/05/the-culture-of-critique-in-france-review-of-anne-klings-books-on-jewish-influence-in-france/
- Jewish Influence and Ethnic Networking in France: In Their Own Words . . . http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2016/03/jewish-influence-and-ethnic-networking-in-france-in-their-own-words/
- Zeldin, 1988, p.1037.
- Zeldin, 1988, p.1038.
- Zeldin, 1988, p.1038.
- Werth, Alexander, France 1940-1955, London 1957.
- Gildea, 1996, p.69-70, where it is stated "the Jewish dimension of the Resistance was effectively ignored until 1985."
- Werth, 1957, pps:133, 141, & 159.
- Zeldin, 1988, p.1037.
- Zeldin, 1988, p.1037.
- Zeldin, 1988, p.1037.
- Montigny, J., Le Complot contre la Paix, Paris, n/d, pps:147-8, 282-4.
- Werth, 1957, see Index.
- citing Eugene Doloncle.
- Soucy, Robert, French Fascism: The Second Wave 1933-1939, Yale University Press, London, 1995, p.56.
- Soucy, 1995, pps:300-304.
- Some 3,000,000 members and supporters. Zeldin, 1988, p.1150.
- Soucy, Robert, French Fascism: The Sceond Wave 1933-1939, Yale University Press, 1995, p.313. ISBN 0-300-05996-5
- The Primrose Path: A Biography of Ferdinand Lassalle, by David Footman, Cresset Press, London, 1994.
- Britannica 1938, p.354.
- Medlicott, Professor W.N., Dakin, Professor Douglas, Bennett, Gillian, Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, Second Series, vol.xvii, HMSO London, 1979, p.175.
- Petropoulos, 2014, p.100.
- Petropoulos, 2014, p.5:
- Encyclopaedia Britannica 1938 Year Book, London, 1938, p.354.
- Britannica 1938, p.354.
- Mendelsohn, Ezra, The Jews of East Central Europe between the World Wars, University of Indiana Press, 1983, pp.100-102, who says journalism was 34.3%, and Music 26.6%.
- Szinai, Miklos, & Szucs, Laszlo, editors, The Confidential Papers of Admiral Horthy, Corvina Press, Budapest, 1965, p.150.
- Britannica 1938, p.354.
- Schlosser, F.C. Professor, History of the Eighteenth Century, vol.iv, London, 1845, p.393.
- Britannica 1938, p.506.
- Britannica 1938, p.354.
- Britannica 1938, p.354.
- A Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia, British War Office archives, National Archives, Kew, Surrey, U.K., pps:2,6,28.
- A Quarter of Russia’s Richest People are Jews http://www.dailystormer.com/a-quarter-of-russias-richest-people-are-jews/
- Dalton, 2009, p.246-7.
- Britannica 1938, p.355.
- Dalton, PhD., Dr. Thomas, Debating the Holocaust, New York, 2009, p.251, ISBN 9-781591-480051.
- Dalton, 2009, p.239.
- Dalton, 2009, p.239.
- Joel Stein, "How Jewish is Hollywood?", December 19, 2008. Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-stein19-2008dec19,0,4676183.column
- Primetime Propaganda by Ben Shapiro, HarperCollins publishers, USA & UK, 2011, ISBN 078-0-06-193477-3
- Daily Telegraph, Thursday 19th July 2012.
- Dalton, 2009, p.240-1.
- Washington Post, 11th march 2003.
- 5th January 1993 edition.
- 13th March 2003 edition.
- UPI agency, 4th June 2008.
- Reuters, 23rd July 2008.
- Report dated 7 August 1933
- Polish Documents on the Origin of the War, cited in State Secrets by Comte Léon de Poncins, UK edition, 1975, ISBN 0-85172-911-8, p.31.
- John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt. The Israel Lobby. Vol. 28 No. 6 · 23 March 2006 pages 3-12. London Review of Books. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n06/john-mearsheimer/the-israel-lobby
- Dalton, 2009, p.237.
- Britannica 1938, p.354-5.
- Peter Oborne "Forget the Queen fiasco, it's the BBC's love affair with the Blairs that is so disquieting", Daily Mail, 13 July 2007
- Other journalists were also unimpressed with Aaronovitch or dismissed the series. See Rachel Cooke in the New Statesman ("A great big rip-off", New Statesman, 22 November 2007) and Mark Lawson ("Economical with the candour", The Guardian, 17 November 2007).
- The Daily Telegraph. 19 May 2016. "Expert on Marxism but no journalism on her CV: new ITV economics editor".
- London Gazette: , 18 January 1966.
- Turner, Camilla (22 December 2016). Some of Britain's top universities are becoming no-go zones for Jews, Baroness Deech claims.
- "About us" (in en-US). UK Lawyers for Israel. http://www.uklfi.com/about-uk-lawyers-for-israel/.
-  Template:Webarchive
- OUP website. Oup.com. Retrieved on 20 November 2014.
- Spier, Eugen, A Footnote to the History of the Thirties, published by Oswald Wolff London, 1963.
- William Stern | USC Shoah Foundation Institute
- Not-so-hard times for the celebrity bankrupts. Evening Standard (17 August 2001).
- Charles, James (25 June 2008). The 10 worst property investments ever. The Times.
- "Stern declared bankrupt". Montreal Gazette. 2 June 1978.
- Stern reminders of earlier property crashes. The Daily Telegraph (9 December 2007).
- An English Affair by Richard Davenport-Hines, London, 2013, ISBN 978-0-00-743584-5. Many references.
- Kay, William, Tycoons: Where They Came from and How They Made It, Piatkus Books, 1985, p.143. ISBN 0861883470
- Goldstein, Israel (1984). My World as a Jew: The Memoirs of Israel Goldstein. Associated University Presses, 206–207. ISBN 0845347802.
- London Gazette: , 1 January 1962.
- Obituary in LSE Magazine, vol.19, no.2, Winter 2007, p.45.
- The Jewish Bias of the Nobel Prize https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229007550_The_Jewish_Bias_of_the_Nobel_Prize
- Kevin MacDonald on July 16, 2010. Jewish overrepresentation at elite universities explained. http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2010/07/kevin-macdonald-jewish-overrepresentation-at-elite-universities-explained/
- A Reply to Jordan Peterson https://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2018/08/16/a-reply-to-jordan-peterson/
- What is behind the push for war with Russia? http://davidduke.com/what-is-behind-the-push-for-war-with-russia/