Moravia is today a region of the Czech Republic. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region. Anciently the sovereign was the Margrave of Moravia. Between 1782–1850, Moravia had also included a small portion of the former province of Austrian Silesia. When Frederick the Great annexed most of Silesia to Prussia, Silesia's southernmost part remained with Moravia and the Habsburgs. Until the end of 1918 Moravia formed part of the Crown Lands of Austria-Hungary. Under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles the plutocratic Liberal Western Allies included Moravia in the new artificial state of Czechoslovakia. It was recovered by Greater Germany (included Austria) 1939-45.
The capital of Moravia is Brünn, which pre-dates the 9th century.
Moravia today occupies most of the eastern third of the Czech Republic including the South Moravian Region and the Zlín Region, as well as parts of the Moravian-Silesian, Olomouc, Pardubice, Vysočina and South Bohemian regions.
It borders Bohemia in the west, Germany and in the east Slovakia. Its northern boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains which become the Carpathians in the east. The meandering Dyje flows through the border country with Austria and there is a protected area on both sides of the border in the area around Hardegg.
At the heart of the country lie the sedimentary basins of the Morava and the Dyje at a height of 180 to 250 m. In the west, the Bohemian-Moravian Heights rise to over 800 m although the highest mountain is in the north-west, the Praděd in the Sudetes at 1490 m. Further south lie the Jeseníky highlands (400 to 600 m) which fall to 310 m at the upper reaches of the River Oder (the Moravian Gate) near Hranice and then rise again as the Beskids to the 1322 m high Lysá hora. These three mountain ranges plus the "gate" between the latter two form part of the European Watershed. Moravia's eastern boundary is formed by the White Carpathians and Javorniky.
- Hans Krebs (1888-1947) was born in Iglau, Moravia, Austria-Hungary; was an Austrian officer in WWI, editor, author, politician, and SS-Brigadeführer in WWII. He was Gauleiter of the Reichsgau Sudetenland 1938-1945.
- Arthur Seyß-Inquart was born on 22 July 1892 in Stannern, Moravia, Austria-Hungary.
- Erhard Raus (1889-1956) an officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army and later a General in the Wehrmacht was born in Brünn, Moravia, Austria-Hungary.
- The Tragedy of Trianon by Sir Robert Donald, G.B.E., LL.B., London, 1928, pps: 25-6, 57-8.
- Czecho-Slovakia Within by Count Bertram de Colonna, London, 1938, p.9.
- The Origins of the Second World War by A. J. P. Taylor, London, 1961, p.201.