Czech Republic

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Czech Republic
Česká republika
Motto: "Pravda vítězí" (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Anthem: Kde domov můj? (Czech)
"Where is my home?"
[a]
Capital
and largest city
Prague (Praha)
50°05′N 14°28′E / 50.083°N 14.467°E / 50.083; 14.467
Official languages Czech, Slovak[1]
Recognized minority languages (alphabetically): Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Romani, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak and Ukrainian[2]
Ethnic groups 90.5% Czechs,
3.7% Moravians,
1.9% Slovaks,
3.9% others[3]
Demonym Czech
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Václav Klaus
 -  Prime Minister Petr Nečas
Formation
 -  Principality of Bohemia c. 870 – 1198 
 -  Kingdom of Bohemia 1198–1918 
 -  Czechoslovakia 28 October 1918 
 -  Czech Republic 1 January 1993 
Area
 -  Total 78,866 km2 (116th)
30,450 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2
Population
 -  5 November 2010 estimate 10,674,947 (78th)
 -  2001 census 10,230,060
 -  Density 133/km2 (77th)
341/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $258,959 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $24,832[4]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $199,012 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $19,084[4]
Gini (2008)26
low · 4th
HDI (2010)increase0.841[5]
Error: Invalid HDI value · 28th
Currency Czech koruna (CZK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code +4204
Internet TLD .cz³
1. 30 June 2010 (See Population changes).
2. Rank based on 2009 IMF data.
3. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.
4. Shared code 42 with Slovakia until 1997. ^ a. Rhetorical question meaning "Those places where my homeland lies".

The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe and a member state of the European Union. The country has borders with Poland to the north, Germany to the northwest and west, Austria to the south, and Slovakia to the east. The capital and largest city is Prague, a major tourist destination. The country is composed of the historic regions of Bohemia and Moravia, as well as parts of Silesia.

Bohemia was under Habsburg rule from 1526, becoming part of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. The artificial state of Czecho-Slovakia was created in 1919 by the plutocratic Western Allies, following World War I. In 1938 Germany annexed Bohemia, dissolved Czecho-Slovakia, and allowed the creation of the autonomous state of Slovakia. In 1945 the armies of the Soviet Union and to a lesser extent the USA over-ran these provinces and the Red Army and the local Czech communists gained the upper hand. Naturally the Communist party gained a majority in 1946 'elections' and a resurrected Czecho-Slovakia was a Communist puppet state in the Eastern Bloc from then until the 1989 Velvet Revolution. On 1 January 1993, the country peacefully divided into the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.

The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party representative parliamentary democracy. The academic Václav Klaus was a former and recent head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government. The Parliament has two chambers — the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Czech Republic joined the Western plutocrats in NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. It is also a member of the OECD, the Visegrád group and the Council of Europe.

The War Crimes[6] carried out by the Czechs in 1945-6 against the German inhabitants of Bohemia, Moravia, (and Sudetenland) remain unaccounted for.

See also

References

  1. Slovak language is defined as official language together with Czech language by several laws – e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz. Cited: "Například Správní řád (zákon č. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V řízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v českém jazyce. Účastníci řízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být předkládány i v jazyce slovenském..." (§16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správě daní a poplatků (337/1992 Sb.) „Úřední jazyk: Před správcem daně se jedná v jazyce českém nebo slovenském. Veškerá písemná podání se předkládají v češtině nebo slovenštině..." (§ 3, odstavec 1). http://portal.gov.cz
  2. Citizens belonging to minorities, which traditionally and on long-term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic, enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in front of the courts of law (for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic). The article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures right of the national and ethnic minorities for education and communication with authorities in their own language. Act No. 500/2004 Coll. (The Administrative Rule) in its paragraph 16 (4) (Procedural Language) ensures, that a citizen of the Czech republic, who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, have right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. In case that the administrative agency doesn't have an employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense. According to Act No. 273/2001 (About The Rights of Members of Minorities) paragraph 9 (The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law) the same applies for the members of national minorities also in front of the courts of law.
  3. CIA - The World Factbook - Czech Republic
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Czech Republic. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on 21 April 2010.
  5. Human Development Report 2010. United Nations (2010). Retrieved on 5 November 2010.
  6. Examples here: http://www.wintersonnenwende.com/scriptorium/english/archives/whitebook/desg22.html#066