Moldova

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Moldova
Republica Moldova
Flag of Moldova Coat of arms of Moldova
Anthem: Limba noastră
Our Language
Capital
and largest city
Chişinău
47°0′N 28°55′E / 47°N 28.917°E / 47; 28.917
Official languages Moldovan language
Recognised regional languages Gagauz, Russian and Ukrainian
Ethnic groups 71.5 % Moldovan and Romanian, 20.5% Ukrainian and Russian, 4% Gagauz, 2% Bulgarian, 2% others [1]
Demonym Moldovan, Moldavian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President of Moldova Maia Sandu
 -  Prime Minister of Moldova Dorin Recean
 -  President of the Moldovan Parliament Igor Grosu
History of Moldova
 -  Independence of Moldova June 23, 1990 
 -  Declaration of Independence (from the Soviet Union)
August 27, 19912 
Area
 -  Total 33,846 km2 (139th)
13,067 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.4
Population
 -  January 1, 2009[2] estimate 3,567,500 (does not include territories under Transnistrian control) (129th3)
 -  2004 census 3,383,3324
 -  Density 121,9/km2 (87th)
316/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $10.141 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $2,842[3]
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $5.403 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $1,514[3]
Gini (2007)37.1
medium
HDI (2010)decrease 0.623[4]
Error: Invalid HDI value · 99th
Currency Moldovan leu (MDL)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code 373
Internet TLD .md
1. "Moldovan" used as formal official name; in fact Romanian.[5]
2. Proclaimed. Finalized along with the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991.
3. Ranking based on 2009 UN figure
4. 2004 census data from the National Bureau of Statistics.[1] Figure does not include Transnistria and Bender.
File:RepublicOfMoldova.png
Republic of Moldova

The Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova) is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east and south. Historically part of the Principality of Moldavia, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1812. At the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1918, it united with Romania. After being occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940, and changing hands in 1941 and 1944 during World War II, it was known as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991. The Republic of Moldova declared its independence from the Soviet Union on 27 August, 1991 at a time when other Soviet Socialist Republics were also separating, such as Ukraine. Although Moldova has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester river despite signing international obligations to withdraw.

Republic of Moldova is a parliamentary democracy with a President as its head of state and a Prime Minister as its head of government. The country is a member state of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, OSCE, GUAM, CIS, BSEC and other international organizations. The Republic of Moldova has officially been a neutral country since its independence, and an early member of the NATO Partnership for Peace. Republic of Moldova currently aspires to join the European Union and is implementing its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.

Geography

Moldova lies between latitudes 45° and 49° N, and mostly between meridians 26° and 30° E (a small area lies east of 30°).

The largest part of the country lies between two rivers, the Dniester and the Prut rivers. The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea. Moldova has access to the Danube for only about 480 m, and Giurgiuleşti is the only Moldovan port on the Danube. In the east, the Dniester is the main river, flowing through the country from north to south, receiving the waters of Răut, Bâc, Ichel, Botna. The Ialpug flows into one of the Danube limans, while the Cogâlnic flows into the Black Sea chain of limans.

The country is landlocked, even though it is very close to the Black Sea. While most of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed 430 m — the highest point being the Bălăneşti Hill. Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains. Its subdivisions in Moldova include the Dniester Hills (Northern Moldavian Hills and Dniester Ridge), Moldavian Plain (Middle Prut Valley, and Bălţi Steppe), and Central Moldavian Plateau (Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills, Corneşti Hills (Codri Massive; "Codri" meaning "forests"), Lower Dniester Hills, Lower Prut Valley, and Tigheci Hills). In the south, the country has a small flatland, the Bugeac Plain. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau, and parts of the Eurasian Steppe.

The country's main cities are the capital, Chişinău, in the center of the country, Tiraspol (in the eastern region of Transnistria), Bălţi (in the north) and Bender (in the south-east). Comrat is the administrative center of Gagauzia.

Administrative divisions

Moldova is divided into thirty-two districts (raioane, singular raion), three municipalities and two autonomous regions (Gagauzia and Transnistria).[6] The status of Transnistria is disputed, as the central government does not control that territory. The cities of Comrat and Tiraspol, the administrative seats of the two autonomous territories also have municipality status.

Moldova has 65 towns, including the five with municipality status, and 917 communes. Some other 699 villages are too small to have a separate administration, and are administratively part of either cities (40 of them) or communes (659). This makes for a total of 1,681 localities of Moldova, all but two of which are inhabited.

Government and politics

Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic. The 1994 Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country. A parliamentary majority of at least two thirds is required to amend the Constitution, which cannot be revised in time of war or national emergency. Amendments to the Constitution affecting the state's sovereignty, independence, or unity can only be made after a majority of voters support the proposal in a referendum. Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution.[7]

The country's central legislative body is the Moldovan Parliament, which has 101 seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on proportional representation party lists every four years.

The head of state is the President of Moldova, who is elected by the Moldovan Parliament, requiring the support of three fifths of the deputies (at least 61 votes). The president of Moldova has been elected by the parliament since 2001, a change designed to decrease executive authority in favor of the legislature. The president appoints a Prime Minister who functions as the head of government, and who in turn assembles a Cabinet, both subject to parliamentary approval.

The 1994 constitution also establishes an independent Constitutional Court, composed of six judges (two appointed by the President, two by Parliament, and two by the Supreme Council of Magistrature), serving six-year terms, during which they are irremovable and not subordinate to any power. The Court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of the parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties, signed by the country.[7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 (Romanian)National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova
  2. National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Moldova. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on 2010-04-21.
  4. Human Development Report 2010. United Nations (2010). Retrieved on 5 November 2010.
  5. State.gov, US Department of State
  6. Autorităţi publice locale. Government of Moldova. Retrieved on 12 October 2010.
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, 2000. Retrieved 31-10-2010.
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