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Montenegro (Montenegrin standard: Crna Gora) is a country and former Kingdom in the Balkans in south-east Europe with a small coastline on the Mediterranean Sea, with a mostly South Slavic and Orthodox Christian population of 602,445, and a small Albanian minority. Its capital city is Podgorica (IPA: /pǒdɡoritsa/).


Following a referendum with 86.5% turnout and 55.5% approval[1], it declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro in 2006, which itself split-off from Yugoslavia after the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s.

The state is a Unitary Parliamentary Republic. Montenegro officially applied for European Union membership in 2008, but is still not a member of the EU. Officials are aiming for membership by 2025[2]. It de facto adopted the Euro right after independence, being one of the two non-EU countries that adopted the Euro.

Montenegro is a member of NATO since June 5th, 2017. Its NATO military personnel per capita rate is 25.1 per 1,000 people, compared to the NATO average of 8.9 per 1,000, and the US rate of 6.9 per 1,000.[3]


"Montenegrin language does not mean a systemically separate language, but just one of four names (Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian) by which Montenegrins name their part of [the] Shtokavian system, commonly inherited with Muslims, Serbs and Croats".[4]

The predominant language is the Shtokavian variety of the Serbocroatian language. Shtokavian is also spoken in most of Croatia and Bosnia, and all of Serbia. The Montenegrin standard has two writing system, based on the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. The Latin standard is used more in daily life.

Latin letters: A B C Č Ć D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š Ś T U V Z Ž Ź

Cyrillic letters: А Б В Г Д Ђ Е Ж З З́ И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С С́ Т Ћ У Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш


Religion (2011): 72.07% Orthodox Christians; 19.11% Islamics and Muslims; 3.86% Catholics, Protestants, Adventists, and Jehovah's Witnesses; 1.24% Atheists; 0.07% Agnostics; 0.02% Buddhists; 1.02% Others.[5]

Ethnic groups (2011): 44.98% Montenegrins; 28.73% Serbs; 12.16% Slavic Muslims (including Bosniak, Bosnian, Muslim, Bosnian-Muslim, Montenegrin-Muslim, etc.); 4.91% Albanians; 1.01% Gypsies; 0.97% Croats; 0.64% Serb-Montenegrins and Montenegrin-Serbs; 0.33% Egyptians; 8.86% Others (see census); 4.87% "Does not want to declare".[5]

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