From Metapedia
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: Galicia
Anthem: Ще не вмерла України і слава, і воля  (Ukrainian)[1]
Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny i slava i volya  (transliteration)
Ukraine's glory has not perished, neither has her freedom
and largest city
50°27′N 30°30′E / 50.45°N 30.5°E / 50.45; 30.5
Official languages Ukrainian
Recognised regional languages Russian, Crimean Tatar
Ethnic groups 77.8 % Ukrainian
17.3 % Russian
  4.9 % others[2]
Demonym Ukrainian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Volodymyr Zelenskyy
 -  Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal
 -  Speaker of Parliament Not known.
Legislature Verkhovna Rada
 -  Kievan Rus' 8821 
 -  Kingdom of Galicia & Volhynia 11991 
 -  Ukrainian National Republic November 7, 1917 
 -  West Ukrainian National Republic November 11, 1918 - Feb 1919 
 -  Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR) (East Ukraine) December 30, 1922 
 -  Declaration of Ukrainian Independence June 30, 1941 - October 1944 
 -  Declaration of Independence of Ukraine from the Soviet Union December 26, 1991 
 -  Total 603,628 km2 (45th)
233,090 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7%
 -  2022 estimate 43,306,372[3] (28th)
 -  2001 census 48,457,102 (and falling)
 -  Density 77/km2 (115th)
199/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2022 estimate
 -  Total increase $622 billion[4] (48th)
 -  Per capita increase $15,124[4] (108th)
GDP (nominal) 2022 estimate
 -  Total increase $204 billion[4] (56th)
 -  Per capita increase $4,958[4] (119th)
Gini (2006)31
HDI (2019)increase 0.779[5]
high · 74th
Currency Hryvnia (UAH)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code 380
Internet TLD .ua
1 The ancient Varangarian state of Kievan Rus' was formed in 882 on territory which today falls within modern Ukraine. Rus' is said by Ukrainian historians and the Ukrainian Parliament as an early predecessor of the Ukrainian nation.[6] The Russians, however, make the same claim with greater weight.[7][8][9]

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It borders Russia to the East and north-east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south. The Ukraine as a sovereign state in its current form is of recent origin being founded in 1992. Until the end 1991 it was one of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and its borders remain those of that administrative region. The historic city of Kiev (Kyiv) is the country's capital. The chief city of the Western Ukraine (Galicia) is Lviv.

Historically the country is divided into two spheres: the ancient principality of Galicia in the West, which looks to the Germanic countries, and to a lesser extent Poland, culturally, as influences, and the Russian-speaking South and East, which traditionally looked more to Moscow. The country is a majority Orthodox religiously, but Uniate Catholics predominate in the West and those of the Orthodox faith are today in conflict with the Moscow Patriarchate since 1992. The nation considers itself the heirs of the Cossacks although this is largely mythology. Ukrainian nationalism, as is understood in the modern context, only arose in the second half of the nineteenth century, along with all the other Slav nationalist movements.

The President of the Ukraine, since May 2019, Volodymyr Zelenskyy, is Jewish. In April 2019 the New York Times celebrated that after Zelensky is sworn in, alongside [then] Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman, Ukraine will be the only country outside of Israel where the heads of state and government are both Jewish.[10] In December 2021 the Kyiv Jewish Forum celebrated 30 years of Ukraine-Israel ties.[11].[12] It has been openly stated that the Ukraine economy is controlled by Jews.[13]

On the 24th February 2022 Russia commenced an invasion of Ukraine[14] in order for border adjustments to be effected, and to stop it becoming a USA satellite state and joining NATO. The American very small 'c' website conservapedia describes the war as one between NATO and Russia.[15] This was confirmed in a press conference by Jens Stoltenberg, NATO's head, in October 2022, when he said that if Russia wins it will be a defeat for NATO.[16] The war was still continuing in Spring 2024.


See also: Kiev

Eusebius, the ecclesiastical historian who lived from 264-340 AD[17] stated that Saint "Andrew received Scythia", at that time a vast ill-defined area of southern Russia including today's 'Ukraine'. Nestor (lived c1056 - c1114), the monk who is called the 'Father of Russian History', in his Chronicles, written circa 1100, follows on from Eusebius and states that St. Andrew journeyed north to what is today Kiev and drove his staff into the ground on the spot where the cathedral now stands, telling the local inhabitants "here shall be built Our Lord's House".

Over what is today known as the Ukrainian steppe, on both sides of the middle Dnieper, the Chronicle of Nestor tells us that from the eighth to the first century BC the Scythians occupied the region where Kiev stands, and from which tribes the territory kept its name long after their demise. Then came the Sarmatians whose civilisation was impregnated with Hellenism and Asiatic influences and which was destroyed by the Goths in the third century. At this juncture appear the Antae, who, according to the latest research, form a link between the Helleno-Scythian-Sarmatian civilization and the population of the later centuries. It is practically certain that the Antae were Slavs; but they are unlikely to have inherited very much from their predecessors, who had been swept away in the welter of successive invasions. It is known that the Antae were attacking the Byzantine Empire in 518 AD. In the ninth century the names of the Slav peoples still stood for no more than groups of tribes organised on a patriarchal basis. As populations grew, fortified towns surrounded by palisades became accepted centres of trade and local power, and Kiev is one of the more prominent examples. The Slavs of the steppe at this time still paid tribute to the Khazars.[18] From at least the 9th century, the territory of present-day largely eastern Ukraine was a centre of a medieval eastern Slavic civilization which was part of the state of so-called Kievan Rus'[19] ruled, however, by the Varangarians.

Nestor continues, with the story of Princess Olga, the grandmother of St. Vladimir (of the Varangarian House of Rurik), the founder of Russian Christianity. Vladimir was Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Kiev, and ruler of ancient Rus' from 980 to 1015. A devotee of St. Andrew, Princess Olga travelled to Constantinople in 957 AD to be baptised by the Patriarch Polyeutes, when the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus stood as her Godfather. Moving on, the Princess Sophia of Achaia, the niece and heiress of the last Byzantine Emperor, married Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow, of the House of Rurik and a descendant of aforementioned Olga and Vladimir. Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (lived 1440-1505), was also known as "Ivan the Great", was the first to adopt the title of "Grand Duke of All the Russias". He is sometimes referred to as the "gatherer of the Russian lands", quadrupled the territory of his state, claimed Moscow to be a third Rome, and built the Moscow Kremlin. He remains the longest-reigning Russian ruler in history. His grandson, Tsar Ivan IV married Anastasia Romanov. The Romanovs ruled all Russia until the Russian Revolution in 1917.[20]

Tartar invasion

In 1224 the Russians suffered a complete defeat at the hands of the Tartars (or Mongols) on the banks of the river Kalka near the Sea of Azov. The invaders sacked and burned numerous towns and cities, including Moscow, Suzdal and Yaroslavl, and in 1240 they conquered and sacked Kiev.[21] Kiev was now littered with ruins, its population decimated, and described as a "dead city".[22] The city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come.


In 1320, Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (r.1315-41), drove out the Tartars and annexed the whole of that part of Russia to Lithuania. In 1386, when the Crowns of Poland and Lithuania became united in personal Royal union, the whole of Galicia and southern Ruthenia and other Kievan provinces were formally annexed. However, in 1496 and 1500 the Tartars returned, ravaging all of these provinces. Subsequently, in 1569, with the Treaty of Lublin the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a political union, the province of Kiev now found itself included as a constituent part of that commonwealth. However, in 1648 the Ukrainian Cossacks rose in revolt against their alien Polish rulers and for twenty years devastated the provinces of Volhynia, Podolia and Galicia.

Return to Russia

The subsequent Pereyaslav Agreement, (Jan. 18 [Jan. 8, Old Style], in 1654), an Act undertaken by the Rada (council) of the Cossack army in Ukraine to submit Ukraine to Russian rule, and the acceptance of this Act by emissaries of the Russian Tsar Alexis precipitated a war between Poland and Russia.[23][24] During this war of 1654-57, Russia recovered and annexed from Poland the old Rus lands. In any case, in the summer of 1655 the commencement of the invasion by Charles X of Sweden for the moment swept the so-called 'Commonwealth' out of existence in a succession of defeats for Poland, in what became known as 'the Deluge'.

By the Treaty of Andrussof in 1667 Poland was obliged to formally relinquish the Kiev provinces plus all lands on the eastern side of the river Dnieper to Moscow.[25]

Poland had been permitted to retain Galicia (Western Ukraine) but during the late 18th century Partitions of Poland Galicia fell to the Austrian Empire which ruled it until 1919. The late 20th century ultra-pro-Polish (but English) historian, Norman Davies, waxes lyrical on the Polish influence in Galicia at the expense of all others.[26]

Ukrainian nationalism

In the period from the 1840s to the 1870s, mutual antagonism emerged between the Ukrainian national movement and the Imperial Russian government. Many national activists set either political autonomy or even independence as their long-term goal, while the Russian authorities increasingly came to perceive all Ukrainian cultural work as subversive. This period was in many ways formative of both Ukrainian nationalism and the imperial policies regarding that nationalism. The activities of the Slavic Society of St Cyril and St Methodius in the years 1845 to 1847 marked the beginning of Ukrainian political nationalism and sparked the first wave of government repressions.[27]

It is said that no-one was more influential in the long run upon Ukrainian culture than Mikhail Hrushevsky (1866-1934), the founding father of Ukrainian nationalist history. Though employed in St. Petersburg, Hrushevsky could only publish freely in Lemberg (capital of Austrian Galicia - today west Ukraine), and his Traditional Scheme of Russian History (1904) attempted to demolish the widespread and accepted Russo-centric view that Moscow and its successors had been the sole legitimate heirs of so-called Kievan Rus'. The Ukrainian Awakening was largely due to his works and those of his disciple, Ivan Franco (1856-1916), who became one of the fathers of modern Ukrainian literature, alongside Taras Shevchenko, the poet. For the Jews, Meir Balaban (1877-1942), a graduate of Lemberg, wrote a series of important works on the Jews of Krakow, Lemberg and Lublin, huge communities, earning the reputation as the pioneer of Polish-Jewish history.[28]

Treaty of Brest Litovsk

The furthest advance of the armies of the Central Powers at the time of the Treaty of Brest Litovsk included almost all of today's Ukraine.

The Ukraine enjoyed a brief period of, firstly, autonomy - in between the two Russian Revolutions, and then quasi-independence (in fact a state of anarchy) until the end of the Russian Civil War. In July 1917 a huge debate took place in the Russian Duma over autonomy for Ukraine (in Russia - not Galicia which was still Austrian), which was violently opposed by a majority and caused a major parliamentary crisis[29] resulting in the resignation of the Premier, Prince Lvov, and his Cadet Party and the fall of the government. Ukraine (in Russia) then arbitrarily declared its independence from Russia, and on February 9, 1918 a Treaty of Peace between Russia and the Central Powers was signed at Brest-Litovsk guaranteeing a 'Free Ukraine'.[30] The victorious Western plutocratic Allies, however, refused to recognise this Treaty and declared it null and void in early 1919. Meanwhile, in the winter of 1918, the Central Powers' armies had been largely evacuated from Russian Ukraine and the entire area then became submerged in the Russian Civil War[31][32] during which Poland invaded all Ukraine in an attempt to create a 'Greater Poland'. Driven back they nevertheless managed to hold onto Galicia under a League of Nations Mandate for 25 years.

Upon the final Bolshevik victories, most of today's Ukraine (east of Galicia) found itself as one of the artificial Soviet Socialist Republics from 1922, as part of the murderous Communist Soviet Union[33]. Despite Ukraine forming the second-most important federal unit in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, enjoying greater linguistic freedoms than under Tsarist rule[34], during communist rule in 1932–1933 millions of Ukrainians were systematically starved to death in a man-made famine known as Holodomor[35].

Polish claims to West Ukraine

Galicia (or Ruthenia) was, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conferences, hotly contested (excluding Cracow province which was awarded outright to Poland). In December 1918 a Ukrainian People's Republic under a 'Directory' presided over by Symon Petlura had been proclaimed covering Russian Ukraine and the majority of Galicia. However he subsequently formed an alliance with Poland in order to defeat the Bolsheviks, offering Poland Galicia. Removed from the Austrian sovereignty they had enjoyed since 1772, the indigenous Ruthenian population of Galicia were anxious not to be placed in the newly resurrected state of Poland. This alliance provoked a huge backlash with peasant committees in Galicia who were "manifestly anti-Polish and wanted to destroy everything Polish regardless of class distinction". There were dramatic reports of Polish landed proprietors being burnt alive and the prisons "crammed with Poles".[36] Petlura was overthrown after a brief duration by the Bolsheviks, who occupied Kiev in February 1919.[37] During the Summer of 1919 Poland's Marshal Pilsudski, with his now French-supplied army, invaded Galicia, capturing Lemberg, and then with a force of Poles and 'reliable' Ukrainian nationalists made a mad dash towards Kiev, taking it on May 6, in a desperate bid to transform all the Ukraine into a Greater Poland.[38] The Poles were only able to hold on there for five weeks before being beaten back to "the gates of Warsaw" in the Russo-Polish War.

Britain's objections

Poland's champions, France and the USA, now pressed for inclusion of Galicia (or Ruthenia) etc., into the new Poland. But "the British Government was opposed to anything leading to a final union of Galicia and Poland", pointing out that "a large majority of the population in Galicia in particular was not Polish."[39] The illuminating Minutes of an acrimonious meeting held at President Wilson's house in the Place des Etats-Unis, Paris, with Wilson (USA), Clemenceau (France), Orlando (Italy), and others, show Paderewski representing the Polish Committee's claims on Galicia in a most forceful manner, and Lloyd George's serious rebukes and criticisms of Polish claims all told: "Poland has won her freedom not by her own exertions but by the blood of others, when she had, in 1914, not the slightest hope of it. Now we have the greatest troubles trying to keep them from annexing other nations and imposing upon them the very tyranny which they themselves have endured for centuries. They are Imperialists." Towards the end of 1919, on December 2, the French then raised the issue of what they termed 'Western Galicia' (Krakow province) saying it was "necessary to recognise the sovereignty of Poland" there. Paderewski (for Poland) then referred to Ruthenians and Ukrainians as "primitive people who only exist because of our assistance and practical help".[40]

Polish Mandate

The end result was a compromise (for the Allies) and a victory, of sorts, for Poland, being that the ancient principality of Galicia would provisionally become a League of Nations Mandate with autonomy under Polish administration (not sovereignty), for 25 years. There were numerous conditions, one of which was that Poland could not exercise military conscription there and that the indigenous population would have the same representation in the Polish Diet as anywhere in Poland.[41] Despite the expressed concerns about Polish nationalist "excesses" should this province be under their government, these proved correct, as the promised autonomy was ignored, administration and education were strongly Polonized and the Ukrainian language and culture suppressed. The Ruthenians lost most of the advantages which they enjoyed under Austrian rule.[42] The Poles ruled with a harsh military presence, putting down strikes and unrest in 1931 and 1934 - in the latter year Ukrainian patriots assassinated Bronisaw Pieracki, the Minister of the Interior.[43]. In 1930 the UK's Manchester Guardian reported:

Polish terrorism in Ukraine is worse today than anything else in Europe. Ukraine has become a land of despair and destruction. Ukrainians' rights are guaranteed under international law, but the League of Nations is deaf to all appeals and lectures, and the rest of the world knows nothing about it and doesn't care.[44]

On 3rd August 1939 the German Consul in Lemberg wrote to the Foreign Ministry in Berlin that between July 29th and 31st several hundred Ukrainians, mostly from the intelligentsia, had been arrested by the Poles in Galicia. He continued: "After the German-Polish tension began the Ukrainians have seen the opportunity approaching for which they have longed for over many years, namely of realizing the aim of a free Ukraine.....The Poles are not unaware of this. In order to remove the great danger which threatens the existence of the Polish State from within [in Galicia], the Poles have tried time and again since last April to come to terms with the Ukrainians. These attempts are pointless as they contain no realistic offers. Only if the Polish Government could decide on a far-reaching offer of autonomy would the conditions be created for placing Polish-Ukrainian relations on a different basis.......the hatred of the Ukrainians for the Poles has bitten so deeply that the Ukrainians would [probably] regard an autonomy statute only as a tactical gain, and not a final solution [to the Polish occupation of their province].........Undoubtedly at present a dangerous mood prevails amongst the Ukrainians. The petty methods of Polish chicanery and oppression are wasted and of no effect. Even the Polish large-scale terror actions, the so-called 'pacifications', which took place a few weeks ago in several districts of the Tarnopol Vovoydship, can no longer break the Ukrainians' will for freedom. In their anxiety about developments in Galician affairs, the Polish Government have taken [further] 'preventative measures' and, in the last few days, have caused mass arrests of Ukrainians to be made. These arrests were intended particularly to weaken the Ukrainian ruling classes and therefore affected principally the clergy, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and officials of economic organizations. From my impressions up to now, there seems no doubt that, in the event of an armed conflict between Germany and Poland, the Ukrainians in Galicia would rise as one man. It may be expected they will take possession of the Polish estates and the scattered new Polish settlements in Galicia within a few days and drive out or slaughter the Poles. I expect that in the former Russian territories of Poland, revolts would likewise occur."[45]


Some of the Soviet victims bodies, murdered by the NKVD, in Lvov's Brygidka prison and found by the liberating German army June 1941.
The German General Government which, from August 1941-1944 incl., included Galicia.

In September 1939 the Soviet Union invaded Galicia, occupying it until July 1941 when they were driven out by the advancing German armies who were greeted as liberators. Many Ukrainian patriots then formed military units to fight alongside the Germans in an 'anti-Bolshevik' war against Stalin's Russia.

After World War II

With the defeat of Germany on 8 May 1945, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was reconstituted and its territory was enlarged after the Second World War to include Galicia, as well as some other lands west of the Dneiper; and again, in 1954, with the transfer of the Crimea for the usual administrative reasons.

In the so-called Free World campaigns highlighting Communist atrocities in the Ukraine continued, and Ukrainian nationalist groups outside the old Soviet Bloc continued their efforts for an independent Ukraine. Many conservative organisations in the West gave their support, amongst them the Conservative Monday Club and the Western Goals Institute[46][47] in the United Kingdom. Ukrainian expatriates kept their country's culture alive with many publications.[48]


Even accepting that Ukrainian is a different language (or dialect) to its parent Russian language, it is clear that almost all of eastern Ukraine do not use it. (West Ukraine had originally been Galicia.)

Ukrainian nationalists, taking advantage of the collapse of the communist Soviet Union and a prostrate Russia, held what they described as an independence referendum on 1 December, 1991, after which Ukrainian independence from Russia was finalized on December 26 and formally declared in 1992 using the former administrative Soviet Socialist Republic borders.[49]

The Cold War USA-led Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) held a conference in Budapest on 5 December 1994 resulting in what became known as "The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances" or more simply "The Budapest Memorandum"[50], which actually comprised of three political agreements to provide security assurances by its signatories relating to the accession of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The three memoranda were originally signed by three nuclear powers: the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States, notwithstanding that only Russia was in Europe proper. Red China and France gave weaker individual assurances in separate documents. It should be noted that this was not a Treaty, but memorandums of understanding, not legally enforceable as with a formal Treaty.

A Constitution for Ukraine was then formally adopted on June 28, 1996.


Between November 2013 - Feb 2014 an organised violent coup now called the 'Maiden Revolution' took place in Kiev and Lviv opposing the government which was in favour of good relations with Russia moreso than with the European Union. More than 100,000 Ukrainians filed into the streets of Kiev in response to President Viktor Yanukovych’s rejection of trade agreements with the European Union. The protestors marched into Maidan Nezalezhnosti Square, brandishing signs reading “Ukraine is Europe” and European Union flags, and refused to leave until the government backed down.[51][52] The violence continued into February 2014[53] with thousands of anti-government protesters clashing with riot police, burning police buses and attacking with stones, sticks and fire-bombs after tough new laws were passed.[54] It has been argued by many observers with inside knowledge that this coup was organised by the USA.


Ukraine also became known to be notoriously corrupt.[55][56] In 2012 the international accountancy firm and financial advisors, Ernst & Young, put Ukraine among the three most-corrupt nations from 43 surveyed, alongside Colombia and Brazil.[57][58] In 2015 The Guardian called Ukraine "the most corrupt nation in Europe".[59] According to a poll conducted by Ernst & Young in 2017, experts considered Ukraine to be the ninth-most corrupt nation from 53 surveyed.[60] According to "Transparency International"'s 2021 Corruption Perceptions Index, (a scale of least to most corrupt nations), Ukraine ranked 122nd out of 180 countries in 2021, the second most corrupt in Europe, with Russia the most at 136.[61]

In 2009, Russian natural gas company, Gazprom, refused to conclude a new supply contract unless the Ukrainian gas company, Naftogaz, paid its accumulating debts for previous gas supplies.

Russia attempts negotiations

By the turn of the 21st century the Russians had recovered from the collapse of the Soviet Union and their position on Ukraine hardened, their principal arguments being that the borders were never meant to be sovereign but had been Soviet Socialist Republic administrative borders actually drawn up by Russia. They asserted that the Crimea was essentially Russian as was much of eastern Ukraine. This appeared to be confirmed by census returns. The Russians also expressed their strong opposition to Ukraine joining the European Union, the American proxy military force, NATO, and the steady USA influence inside Ukraine including American personnel in a variety of posts[62]. From at least 2008 Russia had been in negotiations with Ukraine, to no avail. In February 2014, Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych was ousted from office in a coup d'etat, allegedly financed and organised by the USA which ushered in a pro-American and pro-Western Government and President.[63][64] It was clear it was only a matter of time before Russia would act.[65]

During the 2014 quasi-conflict between Russia and the Ukraine, leaflets were distributed saying Jews in Ukraine must register with a non-existent government agency. This was revealed to be a hoax. An investigation traced the hoax not to anti-semites, but to the American Jewish body, the ADL, spreading another hate crime hoax.[66][67]

In March 2014 the Crimea returned to Russian sovereignty following a referendum organised and held there by the government of the Crimea which had been elected under Ukrainian sovereignty. This referendum was monitored by western observers who declared it free and fair.[68] It has been said by Western/USA propaganda that Crimea was invaded by Russia. This is untrue. After 1991 considerable numbers of Russian army and naval personnel remained in their bases in Crimea, by agreement.

Invasion of Ukraine (2022)

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine at several points along the borders. Numerous reasons for this have been given, the most well-known being that Russia would not accept Ukraine becoming a satellite state of the USA, becoming a member of the European Union, or joining NATO - an American proxy force which would have meant missiles right along Ukraine borders facing Russia (as in Poland et al.)

On 1 March 2022, the Jewish Telegraph Agency reported that the so-called Holocaust Memorial at Babyn Yar in Kiev had been hit by rockets.[69][70]

The conflict was still continuing in April 2024.[71]


See also

External links


  1. Law of Ukraine. State Anthem of Ukraine (Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (2003-03-06).
  2. Population by ethnic nationality, 1 January, year. Ukrainian Office of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2008-03-23. Retrieved on 2010-04-17.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK (OCTOBER 2021). International Monetary Fund.
  5. (15 December 2020) Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene. United Nations Development Programme, 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. 
  6. {{cite encyclopedia | ency=The Columbia Encyclopedia| edition= | year=2001-2005| article=Kievan Rus| url=}
  7. Volkoff, Vladimir, Vladimir The Russian Viking, Honyglen pubs., U.K., 1984, ISBN: 0-907855-02-4
  8. Franklin, Simon, Writing, Society and Culture in Early Rus, c.950-1300, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN: 0-521-81381-6
  9. Howe, Sonia E., A Thousand Years of Russian History, London, 1917.
  17. Author of: History of the Christian Church to 324 AD
  18. Portal, Roger, The Slavs, London, 1969, pps:29-33 and 35. ISBN 297-76313 X
  19. Franklin, 2002
  20. Lauder-Frost, Gregory, "Notes on the Institution of the Monarchy in Russia" in Hakahyhe, Winter 1987, no.2, Russian Monarchist League, London.
  21. Morfill 1891, p.38-41.
  22. Portal, 1969, pps: 37 & 47.
  24. Murray 1875, p.316-7.
  25. Murray 1875, p.316-7.
  26. Davies, 2011.
  27. Remy, Johannes, Brothers or Enemies – The Ukrainian National Movement and Russia from the 1840s to the 1870s, University of Toronto Press, 2016, Chapter One, p. 3
  28. Davies, 2011, p.466-7.
  29. Figes, 1996, p.420.
  30. Wheeler-Bennett, John W., Brest-Litovsk: The Forgotten Peace, March 1918, MacMillan, London, 1966 edition, pps:392-402.
  31. Hudson, Miles, Intervention in Russia 1918-1920, Barnsley, UK, 2004, ISBN:1-84415-033-X
  32. Carr, Edward Hallett, The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1923, London, 1950.
  33. Conquest, Robert, The Great Terror, London, 1968 & 190. ISBN:0-09-174293-5
  34. Seton-Watson, 1938, p.331.
  35. Conquest, Robert, The Harvest of Sorrow, London, 1986 & 2002. ISBN:0-7126-9750-0
  36. A Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia, No.34, from Sir Horace Rumbold to Earl Curzon, British War Office, 1919. Published in HMSO 'Uncovered editions', 2000, pps:124-128, ISBN 0-11-702424-4
  37. Petlura was later assassinated in broad daylight in the centre of Paris, on 25 May 1926, by the Russian Jewish anarchist, Sholom Schwartzbard.
  38. Figes, Orlando,A People's Tragedy - The Russian Revolution 1891 - 1924, London, 1996, p.697-8. ISBN 0-224-04162-2
  39. Woodward, Professor E.L., and Butler, Rohan, Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, First Series, vol.iii, 1919, HMSO, London, 1949, pps:348-355.
  40. Woodward & Butler, vol.iii, 1949, p.352.
  41. Woodward, Professor E.L., and Butler, Rohan, M.A., Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, First series, vol.ii, 1919, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1948, pps:218-9/279-281/363-369.
  42. Seton-Watson, R.W., Britain and the Dictators, Cambridge University Press, 1938, p.331.
  43. Davies, Norman, Vanished Kingdoms, London, 2011, p.477. ISBN:978-1-846-14338-0
  44. Manchester Guardian, 17 October, 1930.
  45. Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918-1945 by an editorial committee, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1956, p.1053-5.
  46. European Dawn, London, July and September 1989 editions
  47. Young European newsletter of Young Europeans for World Freedom, Dec 1988, a Western Goals UK publication.
  48. Bloch, Marie Halun, Ukrainian Folk Tales, London, 1964, taken from the original collections of Ivan Rudchenko and Maria Luyiyanenko, is a good example.
  49. Pryce-Jones, David, The War That Never Was - The Fall of the Soviet Empire 1985-1991, London, 1995, ISBN:0-297-81320-X
  51. American propaganda reports:
  57. People First:The latest in the watch on Ukrainian democracy, Kyiv Post (11 September 2012)
  58. Ernst & Young's 2012 Global Fraud Survey Highlights Significant Challenges in Dealing with Corruption and Bribery Risks (11 July 2012).
  59. Bullough, Oliver (2015-02-06). "Welcome to Ukraine, the most corrupt nation in Europe". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. 
  60. Detailed results.
  61. Corruptions Perceptions Index 2021 for Ukraine (en).
  64. europe#:~:text=The%20US%20organised%20the%20coup%20in%20Ukraine%20in,where%20an%20unconstitutional%20coup%20took%20place%20in%202014.
  • Korte, Stefan, Geopolitical Upheaval in Eastern Europe,, 2023, ISBN: 978-82-93925-23-1