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Hate crimes are described as prejudice-motivated crimes that occur when perpetrator(s) target a victim because of perceived membership of certain protected groups. Similar crimes against members of groups which are not protected are not considered hate crimes.
Which groups that have this privileged protected status vary greatly between countries.
Hate crimes are often considered to be particularly serious crimes. Designating a crime as a hate crime may increase the penalty, according to hate crime laws. The police may spend extra resources on investigating hate crimes. Statistics regarding hate crimes may be collected and presented separately from other crime statistics.
Laws sometimes make a distinction between hate speech laws (which criminalize certain forms of expression) and hate crime laws (which increase the penalty for breaking already existing laws).
One criticism is that only certain groups are protected by hate crime/hate speech laws. For example, ideologically motivated crimes by communists/social anarchists against "class enemies" and other disliked groups are not considered hate crimes, despite including many of the world's largest mass killings (see mass killings under Communist regimes). Crimes against LGBT persons are often considered hate crimes, but not crimes that specifically target women, such as female genital mutilation. Crimes against religious groups may be considered hate crimes, but not crimes against certain groups caused by religious beliefs (such as various crimes against women or animals). Crimes against handicapped may be considered a hate crime, but not crimes against the elderly. Religious and political terrorism are often not designated as hate crimes. In some countries (such as Sweden), certain hate crime/hate speech laws protect certain minorities, but not the corresponding majorities.
This raises the question if such laws are "racist" or otherwise discriminatory, since they give special privileges to certain groups, but not to other groups.
See the hate speech article regarding criticisms of hate speech laws.
The report The Color of Crime has criticized that the official US hate crime statistics have Hispanics as a victim category, but not as a perpetrator category. Thus, if a Mexican commits a hate crime against a White, both are reported as White. In 2002, there were 130 White-on-White hate crimes. These were likely all Hispanics committing hate crimes against Whites.
Despite this, per person according to these official statistics, Blacks were 1.82 times as likely as Whites & Hispanics to commit a hate crime and 2.25 times as likely to commit a racially motivated hate crime.
Another criticism is that the official hate crime statistics only include 0.3% of reported interracial crimes. In order for a crime to be counted as a hate crime, the criminal must make his motive clear, usually by using racial slurs.
In particular, crimes committed by a group against a person from another race may be suspected of being prejudiced, even if this is not stated openly. The Color of Crime stated "The NCVS tells us that interracial multiple-offender offenses are even more lopsidedly black than interracial crime as a whole. In fact, whereas blacks committed 10,000 gang-rapes against whites between 2001 and 2003, the NCVS samples did not pick up a single “white”-on-black gang rape. Overall, blacks committed an average of 251,000 multiple-offender violent crimes against whites per year between 2001 and 2003, and “whites” committed 32,000, which means blacks were the perpetrators 89 percent of the time."
The media was argued to give undue emphasis to official hate crimes, as compared to the much more common interracial crimes. Another stated bias was regarding reporting crimes by Whites against Blacks, as compared to reporting crimes by Blacks against Whites.
This is related to still another criticism against the official statistics, which is that the police/officials may be more likely to label an interracial crime as a hate crime when the crime is committed by Whites. This since the media pay more attention to crimes by Whites against Blacks and put more pressure on the police to investigate them as hate crimes.
The Color of Crime stated that, after examining the six official racial hate crime homicides committed during 2002, only in half of these cases there clearly seemed to have been racial prejudice. In two of the cases, the officials responsible for arrest and prosecution said that they did not consider the crimes to be hate crimes. One hate homicide attributed to two Whites was committed by two Hispanics. The statistics regarding less serious official hate crimes, that are not investigated as thoroughly as homicides, may be even more unreliable.
Also the book Race and Crime: A Biosocial Analysis has criticized various aspects of the official US hate crime statistics. Several of these criticisms are similar to those in The Color of Crime. The book also stated that a detailed study in Los Angeles, published in 2000, found that almost half of all hate crimes occurred between Blacks and Hispanics (who are often classified as "Whites" in the statistics). Another form of likely bias against Whites was that a White-on-Black crime was 28 times more likely to be classified as a hate crime than a Black-on-White crime.
See also Race and crime: United States regarding interracial crime in general.
Data released in 2004, under Freedom of Information legislation, stated that between 1995 and 2004 there were 58 murders where the police considered that a racial element played a key part. Almost half (24) of the victims were White. 18 of the murders involved a White attacker against Blacks and Asians. "Whites" included groups such as Jews and Gypsies. 14 of the murders involved minorities attacking minorities.
Senior police officers have admitted that 'political correctness' and the fear of discussing the issue have meant that race crime against white people goes under-reported and that it was harder to get the media interested when the murder victims were young white men.
The British Crime Survey in 2004 found that more Whites than non-Whites reported being the victim of a racially motivated crime. Five times as many Whites as non-Whites reported being wounded in such attacks.
Hate crimes against Christians
Christians have been stated to be by far the most persecuted and discriminated religious group worldwide. According to various NGOs, 80% of all religious discrimination today are directed against Christians. 2014 saw more persecutions than any other year in recent history. Christians today face some form of discrimination in 139 countries – almost three-quarters of the world’s nations. Thousands have been estimated to be killed for their faith each year and some estimates give much higher numbers.
Yet this is rarely mentioned in the politically correct media, which if anything often sees Christianity and conservative, Christian values as an enemy and instead focuses on politically correct stories of persecutions of Jews and Muslims.
The politically correct Western media and groups such as the SPLC tend to focus on "right-wing" terrorism (such as the Zionist Anders Behring Breivik), while often downplaying Islamist terrorism, and in particular downplaying "left-wing" terrorism.
According to statics from "RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents", in 2011 (thus even before the recent wave of terrorist attacks associated with ISIS), "Looking at all people killed by terrorist attacks in Europe and North America during the last 10 years, 97% was committed by Muslim terrorist, or 4703 of 4873 killed. Most of this is September 11 alone. Still, even if we exclude the September 11 attacks, the share of casualties due to Muslim terror is 91%. A lot of the remainder are a number of deadly (and under-reported by western media) Muslim terrorist attacks in Russia. If we just look at Western Europe, the share of terrorist deaths caused by Muslim terrorists during the last 10 years is 79%. The remaining 68 deaths out of 319 were committed by The IRA and other domestic terrorist. By comparison, the Madrid attacks in 2004 alone killed three times as many people than all attacks by ETA, The IRA, Corsican separatists, right-wing terrorists and all other non-Muslim terrorist attacks in Europe during the last ten years combined. Remember, I do not include any Islamists terrorist attacks in the Middle East or South Asia or Africa or anywhere else other than Europe and North America. Based on State Department Data and to unimaginable horror these attacks appear to have killed in excess of 10,000 people per year during the last decade."
Terrorist groups such as IRA, ETA, FARC, Shining Path, Red Brigades, Naxalites, and so on, described or describe themselves as ideologically leftist. If excluding Islamist attacks, then almost all terrorist attacks have been and are committed by such leftist terrorist groups. In comparison, terrorist attacks by "right-wing" groups and individuals are very rare.
In Europe, "left-wing" terrorism completely overshadows "right-wing" terrorism, according to official statistics. Much of this is today committed by social anarchist terrorist groups rather than by communist terrorist groups. In addition, while not necessarily being terrorism, there are various forms of other crimes committed by various leftist groups, such as Antifa, Animal Liberation Front, and so on. These leftist crimes are seldom mentioned, or are downplayed, by the politically correct leftist media.
In 2016, a report by Europol on terrorism stated 135 killed and 374 wounded in the European Union by jihadist terrorist attacks. All others forms of terrorism caused 7 killed and 5 wounded. One non-Jihadist form was terrorism by separatists, who as noted earlier typically describe themselves as ideologically leftist. Another terrorist form was terrorism officially classified as left-wing extremism, typically by social anarchists. There were 27 such attempted or conducted terrorist attacks, which are rarely mentioned by politically correct and leftist media. Regarding terrorism classified as right-wing extremism, there was only one such attack, which caused no killed or wounded.
In the United States, there are widely spread claims that "right-wing extremism" is more deadly than Islamic terrorism. This has been criticized, for reasons such as excluding Islamist related attacks, such as 9/11 and the 2002 D.C. Beltway snipers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, who admitted to authorities that they were inspired by Osama bin Laden, when they killed at least ten people and sought to set up a terrorist training camp. The Virginia Supreme Court affirmed the death penalty on the basis that Muhammad had committed an act of terrorism. Also not counted are the large number of thwarted Islamist attacks on American soil. Conversely, included are attacks which are argued to not, or only very dubiously, be related to "right-wing extremism". "Right-wing extremism" is an argued dubious concept in itself and which is not synonymous with "White supremacism", but also including, for example, individuals with strong anti-governmental views, such as some libertarians. A 2016 criticism stated that in actuality, there have been 62 Americans killed by Islamic terrorists in the U.S. for every one American killed by "right-wing extremists". Moreover, the allegations do not take into account different population sizes and thus do not recognize “the disproportionately high number of attacks by Islamic extremists in the United States, who, even after excluding the victims of 9/11, are still responsible for around 50 percent of the total number of deaths due to extremism, even though Muslims only account for around 1 percent of the total U.S. population”.
A 2013 report counted at least 60 Islamist-inspired terrorist plots against targets in the United States since 9/11. Of the 60 plots, 49 could be considered homegrown terror plots.
In 2017, the Department of Homeland Security Secretary David Kelly stated that "the FBI has open terrorism investigations in all 50 states", that since 2013 "there have been 37 ISIS-linked plots to attack our country'" and "Experts estimate that perhaps 10,000 citizens of Europe have joined the caliphate in Syria and Iraq. Thousands more are from nations in Asia, Africa and the Western Hemisphere. They have learned how to make IEDs, employ drones to drop ordnance, and acquired experience on the battlefield that by all reports they are bringing back home."
In May 2017, "Europe, the United Kingdom, and Russia have witnessed terror attacks or attempted attacks every nine days in 2017 on average [...] Attacks and attempted attacks have taken place in Austria, France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Russia, Sweden, Norway, and Germany. Security services in Britain — population 65 million — are known to be tracking 3,500 potential terror suspects or persons posing a threat. Meanwhile Belgium, with its population of just 12 million, is tracking around 18,000 potential jihadists." Later in 2017, the number of potential jihadists in Britain was stated to be 23,000.
In 2017, the number of violent Islamist extremists in Sweden had soared from 200 in 2010 to "thousands". An intelligence chief said "this is the new normal".
"In the year until the end of September 2017, a total of 400 people were held for terror-related offences in Britain, the highest number since records began in 2001 and a dramatic rise of 54 per cent compared to last year. [...] Security Minister Ben Wallace explained that police and security services “have been clear that we are facing a shift rather than a short-term spike in the terrorist threat”. [...] The Islamic extremist threat to the UK is at an unprecedented scale and has increased “dramatically” over the past year, MI5 Director-General Andrew Parker revealed last month."
In March 2018, the French Prime Minister Edouard Philippe stated that a total of 51 terrorist attacks had been thwarted by French security services since January 2015. In not thwarted attacks, a total of 246 people had been killed.
Worldwide, in 2017, 8,432 people were killed in 370 Islamist terrorist attacks.
Economic and military effects
A Rand Corporation study has estimated to economic cost to the European Union, between 2004 and 2016, of (Islamist) terrorism to €180 billion.
"Half of the French army are currently deployed in France to protect the civilian targets, including schools, monuments, and religious sites. [...] Soldiers “may get better at guarding railway stations and airports than fighting wars”."
Life satisfaction and trust effects
"Similarly to previous work by Frey at al. (2007), our findings suggest that the greater the number of terror attacks in a given year, the lower the average self-reported life satisfaction and happiness of EU citizens. [...] Furthermore, similarly to Blomberg et al. (2011), we find that the more terrorism activity there is within a country the less likely EU citizens report that they can trust another person, and thus terrorism may have a negative impact on interpersonal trust. Analysis of data from the ESS shows that terrorism is associated with lower levels of citizen trust in national political institutions such as the national parliament, politicians in general, the legal system and the police."
There are various associations between Islamism and (far) left views, including regarding terrorism, as discussed in the Islamo-leftism article.
Muslim percentage of the population of a country and Islamist violence
A 2017 study stated an association between Muslim percentage of the population of a country and Islamist violence. This also after controlling for various factors such as GDP/capita, democracy, and ethnic heterogeneity.
In 2014, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) tried to associate Stormfront with various killings. Most notably, with the Zionist Anders Breivik, who killed many White youths. See the articles on Stormfront and Anders Breivik.
In 2018, the SPLC tried to associate the Alt-Right with various killings. Elliot Rodger was alleged to have been the first "alt-right killer" in 2014. While Rodger was associated with the "Manosphere", no evidence has been presented for that the half-Chinese Rodger had any contact with any pro-White Alt-Right organization or that the motives for his crimes involved supporting White interests.
Other SPLC alleged "alt-right killers" include Christopher Harper-Mercer (a mixed-race Satanist who killed Christians), Matthew Riehl (a libertarian hostile to and shooting police officers and who accused a police officer of being "the Nazi in charge"), Devon Arthurs (a convert to Islam and charged with killings after being ridiculed for this), and William Edward Atchison (a school shooter who randomly selected his targets). Dylann Roof has been stated to have been inspired by fictional Hollywood Nazism movies and to have been disappointed when he could not find any such Hollywood Nazi groups in real life. The SPLC stated nothing on this and did not blame Hollywood for Dylann Roof's crimes. The claims regarding other individuals by the SPLC are also dubious and misrepresented.
Furthermore, those individuals (typically with severe mental health issues) acted on their own, unlike left-wing and Islamist terrorism, which are often conducted by organized terrorist groups.
In 2018, the Anti-Defamation League and the mainstream media made widely published allegations that the suspect in a school shooting, Nikolas Cruz, was associated with a "white supremacist" group. Local law enforcement sources stated that no such association had been found. The allegations were later quietly retracted or changed. They may have originated from unreliable sources as a hoax, mistaken identity, and/or in order to gain publicity. The mainstream media was criticized, with one critic stating that the media “will do anything to smear white people." Less widely circulated is that a teacher at the school stated that "He has a Hispanic background. I remember that he didn’t really like to speak Spanish too much. I think there was some pride issue there. He didn’t feel comfortable in his own skin, in his own culture." CNN stated that Cruz in a chat group wrote various racist and violent messages and wrote that "My real mom was a Jew. I am glad I never met her." CNN also stated that "There are no indications in the group chat that any member, including Cruz, is or was part of a white nationalist or white supremacist group."
On alleged recent "right-wing" violence, the leftist Wikipedia in the article "Alt-right" has a long section titled "Links to violence and terrorism".
Regarding SPLC allegations, see the separate section in this article on this.
Regarding the 2017 Unite the Right event, see the separate article on this.
Wikipedia cites an unpublished study on alleged "dehumanization" involving the Alt-Right. Problems with the study include, for example, that the alleged Alt-Right participants (a non-scientific convenience sample paid $3 to participate) were asked to rank various groups and individuals based on how "evolved" they were, with less "evolved" implied to be similar to apes. The alleged Alt-Right participants, who may have been trolling or at least not taking the survey seriously, ranked, for example, "Hillary Clinton" as being the least "evolved" of all groups and individuals, "Donald Trump" as being less "evolved" than "Men" or "White people", and "Republicans" as being less "evolved" than "Americans". That this supposed "evolved" ranking reflects actual Alt-Right beliefs is dubious and the claim that the alleged beliefs cause violence is unproven.
Wikipedia also mentions some small groups and various alleged crimes by some members, such as the Atomwaffen Division, which has been stated to be influenced by occultism/satanism. Associating this with the Alt-Right in general is guilt by association. In other cases, such regarding the large-scale existence of Islamist terrorists organizations and networks, all pro-Islam groups are not similarly accused by Wikipedia of violence and terrorism by using guilt by association.
Regarding alleged hate speech, the Alt-Right has extensively satirized various aspects of political correctness. This may involve methods such as parody, caricature, and exaggeration of politically correct views. However, such methods may in some cases be vulnerable to censorship and "hate speech" laws, if the censor chooses to ignore the obvious satire, and instead insists on a literal interpretation of what is stated. See also The Alt-Right and censorship.
Lenient treatment of politically correct terrorism in the media, academia, and the justice system
Left-wing and non-White terrorism have often been covered-up, romanticized, and/or otherwise been treated favorably in the leftist mainstream media and academia. This especially if framed as being against White supremacism or just White privilege. Such terrorism may also be treated leniently in the justice system.
One example is the fate of the often Jewish terrorists in the Weather Underground, who often received lenient punishments and who afterwards, despite their terrorist background, moved to comfortable careers in academia and elsewhere.
Other forms of left-wing crimes against political opponents
See the article on antifa on this topic.
Examples of earlier leftist violence in the United States include early violence by social anarchists (including killing President William McKinley in 1901), the Weatherman, the Black Panthers, and the Symbionese Liberation Army, as well as various other violent leftist attacks.
Fake hate crimes
There are many examples of fake hate crimes. Motives may involve dislike of and attempted disinformation against the falsely accused group (thus possibly a hate crime against the falsely accused group), cover-up for other crimes (such as insurance fraud), gaining media attention, excitement seeking, financial compensation as a victim, etc.
Recently the world-wide search engine Google as well as the social media outlet Facebook have been removing articles from their facilities under "fake news" and fake hate crimes under a variety of guises. In the case of Facebook they are actively banning traditional conservatives for flagging up reports which, they say, do not conform to their "community standards". There is no appeal process.
See the "External links" section regarding long lists of examples of fake hate crimes.
See also Swastika vandalism.
The Knockout Game
See The Knockout Game.
Lists of hate crimes against Whites
See the "External links" section.
- Beat Up a White Kid Day
- Flash mob
- Kill Haole Day
- Knockout game
- Race and crime
- Swastika vandalism
Hate crimes reports
Hate crimes against Whites
Fake hate crimes
- Hate Crime Hoaxes and the Evolution of Truthiness
- My 10 Favorite Hate-Crime Hoaxes by Gavin McInnes (this is all time up to 2012)
- Top Ten Media Hate Crime Hoaxes of 2013
Fake hate crimes article archives
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 The Color of Crime Race. Crime, and Justice in America Second. Expanded Edition, 2005. New Century Foundation. http://www.colorofcrime.com/colorofcrime2005.html
- ↑ Anthony Walsh. Race and Crime: A Biosocial Analysis. 2004. Nova Science Publishers.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Racial murders: nearly half the victims are white. 22 October 2006. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/oct/22/ukcrime.race
- ↑ The hidden white victims of racism. November 12, 2006. Citizens Against Racism and Discrimination. http://archive.is/20120707/http://card.wordpress.com/2006/11/12/the-hidden-white-victims-of-racism/
- ↑ Number of Christians martyrs continue to cause debatte. Nov 13, 2013. Wrold Watch Monitor. https://www.worldwatchmonitor.org/2013/10/2815601/
- ↑ Christians most persecuted and discriminated against worldwide. Tue, Dec 23, 2014, 10:03. Irish Times. http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/christians-most-persecuted-and-discriminated-against-worldwide-1.2046934
- ↑ The war on Christians. 5 October 2013 . The Spectator. http://www.spectator.co.uk/features/9041841/the-war-on-christians/
- ↑ Tino Sanandaji. Islamists caused overwhelming majority of terrorist deaths in Europe during last decade. Sunday, February 20, 2011. Super-Economy. http://super-economy.blogspot.se/2011/02/islamists-caus-overwhelming-majority-of.html
- ↑ See for example the statistics from the US National Counterterrorism Center. http://www.nctc.gov/
- ↑ Left-Wing Terrorism Surges In Europe, As Governments Dismantle Social Safety Net. http://www.businessinsider.com/left-wing-terrorism-surges-in-europe-2010-9?IR=T
- ↑ Europe: Right-Wing Terrorism, Left-Wing Terrorism http://www.dailystormer.com/europe-right-wing-terrorism-left-wing-terrorism/
- ↑ European Union – Terrorism situation and trend report 2017 https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/tesat2017.pdf
- ↑ 2017 EU TERRORISM REPORT: 142 FAILED, FOILED AND COMPLETED ATTACKS, 1002 ARRESTS AND 142 VICTIMS DIED https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/2017-eu-terrorism-report-142-failed-foiled-and-completed-attacks-1002-arrests-and-142-victims-died
- ↑ Tallying Right-Wing Terror vs. Jihad http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2015-06-30/tallying-right-wing-terror-vs-jihad
- ↑ Prof Debunks Study Claiming Right-Wing Extremists in U.S. More Deadly than Islamic Terrorists http://www.amren.com/news/2016/01/prof-debunks-study-claiming-right-wing-extremists-in-u-s-more-deadly-than-islamic-terrorists/
- ↑ 60 Terrorist Plots Since 9/11: Continued Lessons in Domestic Counterterrorism http://www.heritage.org/terrorism/report/60-terrorist-plots-911-continued-lessons-domestic-counterterrorism
- ↑ The Terrorist Threat Has Never Been Higher https://altright.com/2017/04/22/the-terrorist-threat-has-never-been-higher/
- ↑ 2017 Has Seen a Terror Attack Attempted in Europe Every Nine Days http://www.breitbart.com/london/2017/05/23/2017-seen-terror-attack-attempted-europe-every-nine-days/
- ↑ 23,000 Jihadists in Britain, Not 3,000 As Previously Claimed http://www.breitbart.com/london/2017/05/27/horrifying-with-23000-jihadists-in-britain-terror-threat-more-than-seven-times-greater-than-feared/
- ↑ Sweden sees sharp rise in violent Islamist extremists as numbers soar from 200 to 'thousands' in seven years, warns intelligence agency http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4611300/Sweden-sees-sharp-rise-violent-Islamist-extremists.html
- ↑ Record Number of UK Terror Arrests, Up 54 Per Cent in a Year http://www.breitbart.com/london/2017/12/07/record-number-uk-terror-arrests-up-50-per-cent-year/
- ↑ Man charged after French police foil Paris ricin terror plot https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/05/18/french-police-foil-ricin-terror-plot-arrest-egyptian-brothers/
- ↑ Jihadis Back from Syria Tell Their Stories https://www.amren.com/commentary/2018/09/jihadis-back-from-syria-tell-their-stories/
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 The threat of terrorism is exhausting Europe http://freewestmedia.com/2018/07/02/the-threat-of-terrorism-is-exhausting-europe/
- ↑ Terrorism Cost Europe €185 Billion over 12 Years https://www.amren.com/news/2018/10/terrorism-cost-europe-e185-billion-over-12-years/
- ↑ Noah Carl. A Global Analysis Of Islamist violence. Open Quantitative Sociology and Political Science. 2017. https://openpsych.net/paper/52
- ↑ SPLC: The Alt-Right is Killing People http://www.occidentaldissent.com/2018/02/08/splc-the-alt-right-is-killing-people/
- ↑ Local law enforcement: No ties between militia and Florida high school shooter http://www.tallahassee.com/story/news/2018/02/15/florida-school-shooting-suspect-nikolas-cruz-member-white-nationalist-militia-tallahassee-leader-say/341751002/
- ↑ Evidence Linking Alleged Florida Shooter To White Supremacist Group Is Really Thin https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/evidence-linking-alleged-shooter-to-white-supremacist-group-is-unraveling_us_5a860d74e4b004fc3190630c
- ↑ Who is Nikolas Cruz? School shooting suspect joked about guns, worrying classmates https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/who-nikolas-cruz-florida-school-shooter-joked-about-guns-worried-n848266
- ↑ Parkland teacher: Florida shooter had a Hispanic ‘Pride’ issue, ‘Didn’t like to speak Spanish’ http://www.bizpacreview.com/2018/02/15/shooter-real-identity-603133
- ↑ Exclusive: Group chat messages show school shooter obsessed with race, violence and guns https://edition.cnn.com/2018/02/16/us/exclusive-school-shooter-instagram-group/index.html
- ↑ The Myth of the Right-Wing Extremist http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2016/12/the-myth-of-the-right-wing-extremist/
- ↑ A Long History of Leftist Hatred https://www.amren.com/commentary/2017/06/leftist-violence-political-assassination-radical-terrorism-pat-buchanan/
- ↑ Anti-Trump Hate Map https://www.amren.com/news/2017/05/anti-trump-hate-map/