Effects of race mixing
This article describes research on the effects of race mixing. This includes research not only on groups where the parents are from different races, but also on groups where the parents themselves are race mixed.
See the article miscegenation for more general aspects of race mixing (such as historical, legal, demographic).
In general, for characteristics that are affected by a large number of genes (which is likely usually the case), a mixed-race group would be expected to have characteristics that on average are intermediate between those of the averages of the parental/ancestral races.
If the parents/ancestors were atypical compared to their racial average(s), then this would to some degree affect this expectation. However, one factor affecting the relatives of atypical parents may be regression to the mean effects.
There is a widespread belief that race mixing is beneficial by decreasing inbreeding. However, the population size needed to avoid problems caused by inbreeding is small and is even smaller if there is even a small genetic exchange with neighboring groups from the same race. See the article on inbreeding depression.
Instead, there may be increased risks of negative effects for both children and parents, caused by factors such as
- Genetic outbreeding depression.
- Increased risk of relationship problems (including violence and homicide) in interracial relationships.
- Identity problems for mixed-race children by not belonging to any racial group.
- Social isolation for mixed-race children by not belonging to any racial group.
- Disapproval by society or specific groups against interracial relationships. For example, many Jewish individuals, organizations and the state of Israel actively oppose, campaign against, and prohibit Jews from marrying non-Jews.
- Genetic similarity theory predicts that the parents and other relatives of mixed-race children will feel less close to the mixed-race children. It also predicts that other persons belonging to the races of the parents will feel less close the mixed-race children. In turn, mixed-race children are predicted to will feel less close to their parents, other relatives, and to other persons belonging to the races of the parents. This may cause various problems for the children, the parents, and others.
Even if there were no dysgenic effects from race mixing, for society large scale race mixing may still cause problems, due to factors such as the appearance of new mixed race groups that may feel more or less alienated from their ancestral races. This may increase the ethnic heterogeneity in a society and associated negative societal effects.
Race mixing may be especially problematic for societies where the predominant race is a high K race (see the article about the Differential K theory) with a high degree of altruism and a consequent extensive welfare system. This means that immigrant race mixers from a low K race may have many children without having to support the children themselves and who are instead supported by the welfare systems. (Immigrants from low K races may also have many children within their own group and who are supported by welfare systems paid for by the high K race.)
From the viewpoint of transmitting a parent's genetics to the next generation, mixed race children will transmit less. This since a co-parent from another race will have more dissimilar genetics than a co-parent from the same race. For example, the measured genetic differences between human races is argued to imply that a White English parent will in relative terms be almost twice as closely related to a child with a White English co-parent as to a mixed race child with a Black Bantu co-parent. In terms of the genetic interests of a parent, this is argued to imply that having a non mixed child is almost the equivalent to having twice the number of such mixed race children. Another stated example is that a parent will be genetically closer to an average (and in some cases to every) individual of the parent's own race than to the parent's own mixed race child with a co-parent from a genetically distant race.
Intimate partner violence
A 1989 study stated that the risk of spouse homicide was 7.7 times higher in interracial marriages relative to intraracial marriages, that the risk for White wives was 12.4 times higher in interracial marriages, and that the risk for White husbands was 21.4 times higher in interracial marriages.
The Council of Conservative Citizens has furthermore argued that the above understates the risk for in particular White females. This since research found many cases of White females being killed by other Blacks while being in the company of a Black boyfriend, many cases of White females dying of drug overdoses while they did drugs with Black males, or otherwise dying because of "accidents". In addition, there were many stated cases of Black boyfriends killing family members or close friends. About half of these were young children of a mother who was dating a Black male.
A 2009 study stated that Black men in interethnic relationships were more likely than Black men in intra-ethnic relationships to perpetrate acts of partner violence.
A 2010 study stated that interracial couples had a higher risk for intimate partner violence, including intimate partner violence causing physical injury and/or arrest, than both ethnic minority and White couples.
A 2012 study stated that the prevalence rate for any occurrence of intimate partner violence was highest for interethnic couples. Interethnic couples also had more severe intimate partner violence. Male partners in interethnic couples had higher rates of binge drinking and alcohol problems compared to male partners in intra-ethnic couples.
A 2013 study stated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of intimate partner violence (including mutual intimate partner violence) than monoracial white couples and a level similar to monoracial black couples.
Other studies on interracial relationships
A 2005 study stated that "Interracial marriage is associated with increases in severe distress for Native American men, white women, and for Hispanic men and women married to non-white spouses, compared to endogamous members of the same groups. Higher rates of distress are observed for intermarried persons with African American or Native American husbands or wives, and for women with Hispanic husbands."
A 2008 study stated that "Partners in interethnic unions generally reported lower levels of relationship quality than did partners in same-ethnic unions. These differences held for women as well as men, and for married as well as cohabiting couples. Differences in relationship quality were largely accounted for by more complex relationship histories, more heterogamous unions, fewer shared values and less support from parents. In contrast, differences in socioeconomic resources did not appear to play an explanatory role."
A 2011 study found that "nonblack individuals with black partners have significantly more depressive symptoms and less relationship satisfaction than their counterparts with nonblack partners, regardless of respondent race and whether the nonblack partner is the same versus a different race from the respondent. Further, the relationship between partner race and depressive symptoms is partially and significantly mediated by relationship satisfaction."
A 2012 survey, which also reviewed earlier studies, stated that interracial marriages in general have a greater risk for divorce. White females/Non-White males had the highest risk.
A 2017 study found that images of interracial couples caused a neural disgust response among observers with activation of a brain region associated with disgust. The study stated that "although most of the extant evidence suggests that people in the U.S. are explicitly accepting of interracial romance (e.g., Wang, 2012), our findings suggest that there may still be considerable affective and implicit bias against interracial couples [...] challenges the notion that bias against interracial relationships is largely a thing of the past. Overall, the current research provides evidence that bias against interracial romance is associated with disgust, that interracial couples actually elicit a disgust response among observers, and that these feelings of disgust translate into dehumanization of interracial couples. The current findings provide evidence that interracial couples are implicitly dehumanized, such that they are less readily associated with the category “human” than same-race couples (and more readily associated with the category “animal”). These findings are meaningful given the negative consequences associated with dehumanization, most notably, antisocial behaviors such as aggression and perpetration of violence."
The "National Household Survey on Drug Abuse" in 1999 stated that of the major racial/ethnic groups, drug use was highest among those reporting to be mixed race.
A 2002 study stated that "Mean levels of three characteristics—verbal IQ, number of sexual partners, and birth weight—were examined in African American, White (European-descent) Americans, and Black/White mixed race American adolescents. The sample came from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The mean age was 16 years. According to their interviewers, the mixed race children had an African American physical appearance. The African American adolescents had a lower birth weight, a lower verbal IQ, and a higher number of sexual partners than did White adolescents. For each characteristic, the mixed race mean fell between the means of the two parental populations."
A 2003 study stated that most earlier studies on mixed-race adolescents had found increased risk for emotional, health, and behavior problems. The most common suggested explanation was identity problems, leading to lack of self-esteem, social isolation, and family problems in mixed-race households. The study stated that it was the first using a large, nationally representative sample. Compared with non-mixed adolescents, the mixed race adolescents often had increased risk for various health problems, substance abuse problems, and behavior problems. While there were differences between different mixed race groups, there was a generally increased risk for all race combinations for most risks.
A 2006 study found increased risks for multiracial adolescents for various problems, including violent behaviors.
Another 2006 study which examined behavioral health found that multiracial Hispanics/Latino adolescents and multiracial non-Hispanic adolescents had more behavioral health problems than monoracial Hispanic adolescents.
A 2008 study stated that "Over the past 40 years the fraction of mixed race black-white births has increased nearly nine-fold. [...] As one might expect, on a host of background and achievement characteristics, mixed race adolescents fall in between whites and blacks. When it comes to engaging in risky/anti-social adolescent behavior, however, mixed race adolescents are stark outliers compared to both blacks and whites. [...] Mixed race adolescents -- not having a natural peer group -- need to engage in more risky behaviors to be accepted."
A 2008 study of Chinese-Caucasian, Filipino-Caucasian, Japanese-Caucasian and Vietnamese-Caucasian individuals found that biracial Asian Americans were twice as likely as monoracial Asian Americans to be diagnosed with a psychological disorder.
A 2014 UK study stated that mixed-race children and young people had greater risk for mental health issues, due to poor self-esteem, hostile and rejecting relationships, and the experience of discrimination from both Black and White peers. They were over-represented in the youth justice system, in the child protection system, and in the looked after system.
A 2014 Dutch study found that mixed marriages between Dutch and Muslims had no effect on their friends and families cultural views and therefore did not lead to "integration of minority groups". The researcher stated that "It is a false hope to think mixed marriages bring different groups in the population closer together" and "A mixed marriage rarely leads to emotional ties between the two partners’ families and friends". Furthermore, "The family relationships are rarely harmonious" with various cultural conflicts within the relationship and between relatives.
A 2005 article stated that mixed race individuals in South Korea often had poorer educational outcomes, difficulty getting a job, often worked as day laborers, had difficulties in dating, had higher risk for criminality, and that 40% had attempted suicide. One stated explanation was racism by Koreans.
Latin America (and also the parts of the Caribbean speaking non-Latin languages) has had extensive race mixing. There is a marked racial hierarchy, with individuals and groups having a lighter skin color usually have higher socioeconomic status as well having higher average results on many other beneficial statistical variables. This has been argued to be the most important social structure and to be more important than traditional classes.
Haiti has been ruled by Blacks for two centuries and few Whites have lived in the country. Despite this, there is still a racial hierarchy, with Mulattoes usually having a higher socioeconomic status than Blacks. See also the article on Haiti regarding mass killing/genocide of both Whites and Mulattoes by Blacks.
Whites are only a few percent of the population in many other countries in the Caribbean, which has been argued to make it difficult to claim that Whites could politically oppress the other parts of the population. East Asians have never had any political power, often arrived as indentured laborers, but today usually have a high socioeconomic status like Whites.
Residential racial segregation. even if the groups have similar income, is common in, for example, Brazil and also between Blacks and Mulattoes.
A 2014 article found 31 genetic admixture studies which reported, for individuals residing in the Americas, associations between continental ancestry (e.g., European, Amerindian, Sub-Saharan African, East Asian, and Pacific Islander) and some index of educational attainment or socioeconomic status. None of the associations went in a direction opposite to that predicted by the average IQ scores of the ancestral populations. The results were argued to "support a racial hereditarian hypothesis along with others that predict a fairly internationally consistent association between continental ancestry and cognitively correlated indices of socioeconomic status such as education, income, and job prestige".
A 2016 study "conducted novel analyses regarding the association between continental racial ancestry, cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes across 6 datasets: states of Mexico, states of the United States, states of Brazil, departments of Colombia, sovereign nations and all units together. We find that European ancestry is consistently and usually strongly positively correlated with cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes. [...] It was found that the effect of European ancestry on socioeconomic outcomes was mostly mediated by cognitive ability (Section 13). We failed to find evidence of international colorism or culturalism (i.e., neither skin reflectance nor self-reported race/ethnicity showed incremental predictive ability once genomic ancestry had been taken into account) (Section 14). The association between European ancestry and cognitive outcomes was robust across a number of alternative measures of cognitive ability (Section 15)."
Another 2016 study extended the previous analysis to the United States.
In South Africa, the term "Coloured" refers to a mixed race group with heterogeneous origins. The group has been stated to usually be intermediate between the Black and White populations on many statistical variables, but to deviate from this regarding certain variables, such as regarding the frequency of homicide, which has been stated to be the highest of any racial group in South Africa.
One explanation for this is that "Coloured" feel alienated from both the Black and the White populations and join criminal gangs partly in order to get a sense of belonging.
- Race and intelligence: The genetics or not debate: Racial admixture - Studies on mixed-race groups have been one part of the debate on whether average measured IQ group differences are partially due to genetics or not.
- Race: Mixed race groups
- Slavery: Free Blacks and Black slaveowners in the United States - Also on Mulattoes.
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