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China is the largest country in East Asia and among the largest countries in the world. With over 1.3 billion people, about a fifth of the world's human population, it is the most populous country in the world. Its capital is Beijing.
The official name is "People's Republic of China" (PRC). Taiwan is viewed as a part of China, with unification being a major goal of Chinese policy. The term "Mainland China" is sometimes used to explicitly distinguish China from Taiwan, but sometimes also excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.
Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, large research and development investments, and status as a declared nuclear weapons state, China is often considered as an emerging superpower. China is also a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
North China and South China have been argued to originally have been different racially, with South China being settled by people who entered from Southeast Asia and with North China being settled by people who entered from the north. The northern group is argued to have had a higher average IQ, to have migrated to southern China and to have displaced/interbred with the southern Chinese, resulting a relatively homogeneous group, the Han Chinese. There are still pockets in southern China, in remote regions, where aboriginal groups survive, speaking their own languages.
In addition to these ancestral differences, North China and South China have differed regarding wheat farming (North China) vs. rice farming (South China). This has been argued to have influenced personality differences and associated genetic differences between the northern and southern group. See Other race differences: Collectivism vs. Individualism/Tightness vs. Looseness.
The book World on Fire stated that in the Philippines, the Chinese Filipino community is 1% of the population, but controls 60% of the economy. Similarly, in Indonesia, the Chinese Indonesian community make up 3% of the population, but control 70% of the economy. There is a similar pattern in other Southeast Asia nations. An explanation for this is higher average IQ of northern East Asians (such as the Han Chinese) compared to southern East Asians.
The 2014 book China’s Second Continent stated that, although there are no official figures, evidence suggests that at least a million Chinese citizens have migrated to Africa since 2001 and to quickly have become very economically influential.
Recent Chinese migrations to other parts of the world have also been stated to be large. Estimates regarding the number of Chinese in, for example, Latin America vary widely.
Han Chinese nationalism
China has been argued to in practice strongly support Han Chinese nationalism. China admits virtually no non-Han Chinese "refugees". Regarding citizenship, "Unless someone is the child of a Chinese national, no matter how long they live there, how much money they make or tax they pay, it is virtually impossible to become a citizen. Someone who marries a Chinese person can theoretically gain citizenship; in practice few do. As a result, the most populous nation on Earth has only 1,448 naturalised Chinese in total, according to the 2010 census."
"Many Chinese today share the idea that a Chinese person is instantly recognisable—and that an ethnic Han must, in essence, be one of them. A young child in Beijing will openly point at someone with white or black skin and declare them a foreigner (or “person from outside country”, to translate literally). Foreign-born Han living in China are routinely told that their Mandarin should be better (in contrast to non-Han, who are praised even if they only mangle an occasional pleasantry)."
A 2003 study titled "On the Concept of Race in Chinese Biological Anthropology: Alive and Well" examined papers published in China's leading journal in biological anthropology during the 1982-2002 period. Every single one of the 324 articles dealing with human variation used traditional race concepts.
See also the article on Recent African origin of modern humans.
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), established in 1921, came into power in October 1949, after the Chinese Civil War, with its rival Kuomintang defeated and retreating to Taiwan. Mao Zedong was the dominant figure until his death in 1976.
"The new Maoist regime established a totalitarian Communist system, killing and causing the unnatural deaths of tens of millions. Although the civil war between the communists and the nationalists' is thought to have killed 6-10 million, much larger casualties resulted from systematic terror, repressions and social reforms launched in the mid-1940s by the communists. Estimates of the number of victims during 1949-1975 vary and fully reliable figures do not exist. China's official statistics have not been made available for thorough research. According to an analysis of ten various Western sources, a total of 45-60 million have lost their lives during forced collectivization, purges (2-5 million killed), the Great Leap Forward and ensuing famine (30-40 million deaths), Cultural Revolution (2-7 million killed), occupation of Tibet (0,6-1 million killed) or died in laogai, the world's largest network of concentration camps (15-20 million deaths) and in other repressions."
Supporters of Mao's regime, and Communism more generally, point to improvements such as increased life expectancy. However, this ignores that such improvement occurred worldwide due to scientific and technological progress and that much of the improvement was simply due to peace being restored after many decades of warfare. It also ignores the large advantages China has with a high IQ East Asian and largely ethnically homogeneous population. China when using Mao's Communist economic policies performed much worse than non-Communist East Asian countries/territories, such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan. The Chinese "economic miracle" only occurred after the Communist policies were gradually abandoned.
A positive aspect of Mao's regime was the elimination of the massive drug addiction problem.
"Although China has implemented pragmatic changes and has since the 1980s followed a path of Socialist market economy that may soon make it the world's largest economic power, the country remains a dictatorship. In 1989, the military crushed pro-democracy student protests in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, killing and wounding 1000-3000 civilians. Up to few hundred protesters could have been killed in 2008 riots and protests in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Nationalists in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region have been oppressed for decades. The number of victims there is unknown, but some are included in China's official execution toll of 10 000 a year. In 2003, Chinese authorities banned the peaceful Falun Gong opposition movement, whose declared activities relate to spiritual practice and meditation, and has persecuted tens of thousands of its members. According to international organizations, China's human rights situation has not improved since 2006. There have been increasing numbers of high-profile cases involving the monitoring, harassment, detention, and imprisonment of political and religious activists, journalists and writers as well as lawyers seeking to exercise their rights under the law. New government controls have been imposed on NGOs, the media, including the Internet, and courts and judges."
While there is media censorship in China, the Chinese mainstream media do discuss issues that are not discussed in the Western mainstream media due to political correctness, such as race differences (see Race and sports: Chinese views) and a "crisis of masculinity."
China's policy regarding Tibet has been criticized, both regarding the disappearance of elements of Tibetan culture and government-sponsored migration of large numbers of Han Chinese into the Tibet, sometimes seen as cultural genocide and/or demographic genocide. The Chinese government maintains that its policies have benefited Tibet and quality of life for of Tibetans, that the Tibetan language and culture have been protected, and that cultural and social changes are consequences of modernization.
Economic growth, poverty reduction, and industrial espionage
China has had rapid economic growth and reduction of poverty after the death of Mao and the introduction of economic reforms. As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and the largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest manufacturing economy, the world's largest exporter, and second-largest importer. The Chinese economy is expected to soon become the largest also by nominal GDP.
The 2014 book Chinese Industrial Espionage: Technology Acquisition and Military Modernization "rings alarm bells about technology theft on a scale that the authors say is unprecedented in history and that they believe has strategic implications. They claim that the U.S. government (for which two of the authors work) has underestimated the severity of the threat from China, prompting them to go public with a brief based entirely on open sources. Traditional espionage and hacking are only the most sensational techniques the Chinese authorities use to obtain proprietary information and technology. The others include employing a vast bureaucracy dedicated to collecting open-source material, demanding technology transfers from foreign investors in exchange for access to the Chinese market, participating in academic exchanges, and tapping ethnic Chinese professional and alumni associations in the West for intelligence. Innocent-sounding rhetoric about development and scholarship surrounds many of these activities, and many of the collection methods are legal. But the authors show that these intelligence and espionage activities constitute a strategic initiative guided from high levels of the Chinese government. They push back against what they anticipate will be charges of alarmism (and even racism) and argue that, so far, U.S. counterintelligence operations have been outmanned and outclassed."
The head of the US NSA has described (Chinese) cyber espionage as the "greatest transfer of wealth in history".
New Silk Road
The "Belt and Road Initiative" or "The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road" is an infrastructure and development strategy proposed by the Chinese government, which focuses on connectivity and cooperation between Eurasian countries.
Aside from developmental and trade effects, the initiative may increase Chinese influence and may make it more difficult to blockade China.
In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space. China has not participated in the International Space Station, being banned by the United States. Instead, China has its own space station program. Various ambitious long-term plans have been stated.
The West has actively tried to stop technology transfer regarding military technology. Despite this, in 2017, a report stated that Chinese military technology was reaching "near-parity" with the West. "Western dominance in the field of advanced weapons systems can no longer be taken for granted." In some cases, China may have or soon have the more advanced technology.
Improving Chinese military technology likely has consequences not just for the Chinese military, but will likely greatly increase Chinese arms export (one of the few remaining areas of manufacturing still dominated by Western countries), which may, in addition to the monetary and manufacturing aspects, increase Chinese influence in various ways and make Western military interventions also against non-China countries much more dangerous.
A series of bestselling book in China are Currency Wars and sequels, which reportedly have been read by many senior level government and business leaders. A premise is that Western countries are ultimately controlled by a group of private banks. The books have been criticized for promoting anti-Semitic conspiracy theories.
Many Chinese have been stated to believe that Jewish influence is very large in the the United States and the world. "Scan the shelves in any bookstore in China and you are likely to find best-selling self-help books based on Jewish knowledge. Most focus on how to make cash. Titles range from "101 Money Earning Secrets From Jews’ Notebooks" to "Learn To Make Money With the Jews". [...] many Chinese believe the Jews to be “smart, rich, and very cunning.” Just before my visit to Nanjing, the Chinese tycoon Chen Guangbiao made international headlines by publicly announcing his ambitions to buy the "New York Times" and later the "Wall Street Journal". In a TV interview he explained that he would be an ideal newspaper magnate because “I am very good at working with Jews”—who, he said, controlled the media."
There is a "growing decade-long trend in which a network of loosely affiliated pro-Israeli organizations – largely Jewish American in character – and embracing a number of think tanks, universities, lobbyist groups, philanthropist foundations, and activist-scholars, are actively seeking to alter Chinese perceptions of Israel, with a particular focus on effecting this change among influential academic and policymaking institutions and universities there. The assumption underlying this approach is that in the absence of traditional channels for lobbying in China, influencing such centers of knowledge production becomes the only effective means of re-shaping Beijing’s views in ways that may serve Israeli interests over the long run. Many of these groups have traditionally been involved in pro-Israeli advocacy outreach in the United States and bring with them considerable logistical, organizational, and even ideational experience not to mention specific models of advocacy that they seek to reproduce within China."
See Eugenics: China.
- Move Over, Confucius
- Chinese Communism and Chinese Jews (1969)
- Aryans: Culture Bearers to China
- Communist crimes
- The High Cost of Cheap Chinese Products
- Other People’s Nationalism: China
- Beyond the pale: China's cheerful racists
- ↑ Hart, M. H. (2007). Understanding human history: An analysis including the effects of geography and differential evolution. Washington Summit Publishers.
- ↑ Chua, Amy (2002). World on Fire. Doubleday.
- ↑ Lynn, Richard. The global bell curve: Race, IQ, and inequality worldwide. Washington Summit Publishers, 2008.
- ↑ Why 1 million Chinese migrants are building a new empire in Africa https://qz.com/217597/how-a-million-chinese-migrants-are-building-a-new-empire-in-africa/
- ↑ Chinese Migration to Latin America and the Caribbean https://www.thedialogue.org/analysis/chinese-migration-to-latin-america-and-the-caribbean/
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Other People’s Nationalism: China http://www.unz.com/jderbyshire/other-peoples-nationalism-china/
- ↑ Goran Štrkalj. The Status of the Race Concept in Contemporary Biological Anthropology: A Review. Anthropologist, 9(1): 73-78 (2007) http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/T-Anth/Anth-09-0-000-000-2007-Web/Anth-09-1-000-000-2007-Abst-PDF/Anth-09-1-073-078-2007-422-%20%8Atrkalj-G/Anth-09-1-073-078-2007-422-%20%8Atrkalj-G-Tt.pdf
- ↑ On the Concept of Race in Chinese Biological Anthropology: Alive and Well. Qian Wang, Goran Štrkalj, and Li Sun. Current Anthropology. Vol. 44, No. 3 (June 2003), p. 403 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/374899
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Communist Crimes: China http://www.communistcrimes.org/en/Database/China/Historical-Introduction
- ↑ China Tackles ‘Masculinity Crisis,’ Tries to Stop ‘Effeminate’ Boys http://www.nbcnews.com/news/china/china-tackles-masculinity-crisis-tries-stop-effeminate-boys-n703461
- ↑ https://www.foreignaffairs.com/reviews/capsule-review/2014-02-18/chinese-industrial-espionage-technology-acquisition-and-military
- ↑ NSA Chief: Cybercrime constitutes the “greatest transfer of wealth in history” https://foreignpolicy.com/2012/07/09/nsa-chief-cybercrime-constitutes-the-greatest-transfer-of-wealth-in-history/
- ↑ Chinese weapons are reaching 'near-parity' with the West after Beijing spent $145billion on defense in 2016 - nearly twice that of South Korea and Japan combined and second only to the US http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4223562/Chinese-weapons-reaching-near-parity-West-study.html
- ↑ China’s terrifying and deadly arsenal of weapons http://www.news.com.au/technology/innovation/inventions/chinas-terrifying-and-deadly-arsenal-of-weapons/news-story/e1519b0261611c9eddfa59411ef45055
- ↑ Wikipedia: Currency Wars. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currency_Wars
- ↑ The Chinese Believe That the Jews Control America. Is That a Good Thing? http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/167289/nanjing-jewish-studies
- ↑ An Israeli Lobby in China? http://thediplomat.com/2015/04/an-israeli-lobby-in-china/