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China, known by its official communist name People's Republic of China, and sometimes Red China, is the largest Asian country and among the largest countries in the world. With over 1.4 billion people, about a fifth of the world's human population, it is the second most populous country in the world. Its capital is Beijing (formerly Peking).

The independent nationalist state of Taiwan (formerly Formosa) is viewed by the communists as a part of China, with unification being a major goal of Red Chinese policy. The term "Mainland China" is sometimes used to explicitly distinguish Red China from Taiwan, but sometimes also excludes its two so-called Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.

Red China has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since 1971. Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, expanding technological abilities, and increasing influence, China is often considered to be an emerging superpower. This includes a high average IQ and low ethnic heterogeneity.

Han Chinese

Specific races
Ancient Egyptians
East Asians
Han Chinese
Sub-Saharan Africans

North China and South China have been argued to originally have been different racially, with South China being settled by people who entered from Southeast Asia and with North China being settled by people who entered from the north. The northern group is argued to have had a higher average IQ, to have migrated to southern China and to have displaced/interbred with the southern Chinese, resulting a relatively homogeneous group, the Han Chinese. There are still pockets in southern China, in remote regions, where aboriginal groups survive, speaking their own languages.[1]

In addition to these ancestral differences, North China and South China have differed regarding wheat farming (North China) vs. rice farming (South China). This has been argued to have influenced personality differences and associated genetic differences between the northern and southern group. See Other race differences: Collectivism vs. Individualism/Tightness vs. Looseness.

Han Chinese constitute approximately 91% of the population of China, 95% of Taiwan, 76% of Singapore, and 23% of Malaysia. They are also present as smaller minorities in many other countries.

The book World on Fire stated that in the Philippines, the Chinese Filipino community is 1% of the population, but controls 60% of the economy. Similarly, in Indonesia, the Chinese Indonesian community make up 3% of the population, but control 70% of the economy. There is a similar pattern in other Southeast Asia nations.[2] An explanation for this is higher average IQ of northern East Asians (such as the Han Chinese) compared to southern East Asians.[3]

The 2014 book China’s Second Continent stated that, although there are no official figures, evidence suggests that at least a million Chinese citizens have migrated to Africa since 2001 and to quickly have become very economically influential.[4] However, recently some Chinese have migrated from certain African countries (not necessarily going back to China), due increased competition regarding importing Chinese goods, worsening local economies, anti-Chinese sentiment, and crime.[5]

Recent Chinese migrations to other parts of the world have also been stated to be large. Estimates regarding the number of Chinese in, for example, Latin America vary widely.[6]

Han Chinese nationalism

China has been argued to in practice strongly support Han Chinese nationalism. China admits virtually no non-Han Chinese "refugees". Regarding citizenship,

"Unless someone is the child of a Chinese national, no matter how long they live there, how much money they make or tax they pay, it is virtually impossible to become a citizen. Someone who marries a Chinese person can theoretically gain citizenship; in practice few do. As a result, the most populous nation on Earth has only 1,448 naturalised Chinese in total, according to the 2010 census."[7]
"Many Chinese today share the idea that a Chinese person is instantly recognisable—and that an ethnic Han must, in essence, be one of them. A young child in Beijing will openly point at someone with white or black skin and declare them a foreigner (or “person from outside country”, to translate literally). Foreign-born Han living in China are routinely told that their Mandarin should be better (in contrast to non-Han, who are praised even if they only mangle an occasional pleasantry)."[7]

Chinese-German cooperation (1911–1941)

In 1927, as part of the Chinese-German cooperation (1911–1941), Chiang Kai-shek hired German military advisers, including general advisor Max Bauer and his deputy Hermann Kriebel. In 1928, he conquered Beijing and was elected President. After Colonel Bauer's sudden death on 6 May 1929, Kriebel became his successor as general advisor until 23 May 1930. After his arrival, Georg Wetzell took over this position, aided by Alfred Streccius. During Wetzell's roughly four-year term in office, the number of advisors reached its peak: 77 former German military officers worked in the restructuring of the Kuomintang armed forces or taught at military academies. Hans von Seeckt came to China in October 1933 and became, at the latest, chief adviser on Chinese overseas economics and military development in relation to Germany in Shanghai in May 1934. Among his young German officers was Klaus-Henning von Schmeling-Diringshofen.

Chinese anthropology

A 2003 study titled "On the Concept of Race in Chinese Biological Anthropology: Alive and Well" examined papers published in China's leading journal in biological anthropology during the 1982-2002 period. Every single one of the 324 articles dealing with human variation used traditional race concepts.[8][9]

Communist rule

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), established in 1921, came into power in October 1949, after the Chinese Civil War, with its rival Kuomintang defeated and retreating to Taiwan. Mao Zedong was the dominant figure until his death in 1976.

"The new Maoist regime established a totalitarian Communist system, killing and causing the unnatural deaths of tens of millions. Although the civil war between the communists and the nationalists' is thought to have killed 6-10 million, much larger casualties resulted from systematic terror, repressions and social reforms launched in the mid-1940s by the communists. Estimates of the number of victims during 1949-1975 vary and fully reliable figures do not exist. China's official statistics have not been made available for thorough research. According to an analysis of ten various Western sources, a total of 45-60 million have lost their lives during forced collectivization, purges (2-5 million killed), the Great Leap Forward and ensuing famine (30-40 million deaths), Cultural Revolution (2-7 million killed), occupation of Tibet (0,6-1 million killed) or died in laogai, the world's largest network of concentration camps (15-20 million deaths) and in other repressions."[10]

Supporters of Mao's regime, and Communism more generally, point to improvements such as increased life expectancy. However, this ignores that such improvement occurred worldwide due to scientific and technological progress and that much of the improvement was simply due to peace being restored after many decades of warfare. It also ignores the large advantages China has with a high IQ East Asian and largely ethnically homogeneous population. China when using Mao's Communist economic policies performed much worse than non-Communist East Asian countries/territories, such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan. The Chinese "economic miracle" only occurred after the Communist policies were gradually abandoned.

A positive aspect of Mao's regime was the elimination of the massive drug addiction problem.

"Although China has implemented pragmatic changes and has since the 1980s followed a path of Socialist market economy that may soon make it the world's largest economic power, the country remains a dictatorship. In 1989, the military crushed pro-democracy student protests in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, killing and wounding 1000-3000 civilians. Up to few hundred protesters could have been killed in 2008 riots and protests in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Nationalists in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region have been oppressed for decades. The number of victims there is unknown, but some are included in China's official execution toll of 10 000 a year. In 2003, Chinese authorities banned the peaceful Falun Gong opposition movement, whose declared activities relate to spiritual practice and meditation, and has persecuted tens of thousands of its members. According to international organizations, China's human rights situation has not improved since 2006. There have been increasing numbers of high-profile cases involving the monitoring, harassment, detention, and imprisonment of political and religious activists, journalists and writers as well as lawyers seeking to exercise their rights under the law. New government controls have been imposed on NGOs, the media, including the Internet, and courts and judges."[10]

While there is media censorship in China, the Chinese mainstream media do discuss issues that are not discussed in the Western mainstream media due to political correctness, such as race differences (see Race and sports: Chinese views and genetic screening) and a "crisis of masculinity."[11]


Red China's invasion and colonisation of Tibet has been severely criticized, especially regarding the disappearance of elements of Tibetan culture and the government-sponsored immigration of huge numbers of Han Chinese into the Tibet, sometimes seen as cultural genocide and/or demographic genocide. The Red Chinese government maintains that its policies have benefited Tibet and quality of life for of Tibetans, that the Tibetan language and culture have been protected, and that cultural and social changes are consequences of modernization. This is robustly contested and condemned by the exiled Tibetan Leader, His Excellency The Dalai Lama. According to the Tibetan government-in-exile, ethnic Tibetans make up 49.8% of the total population of the entire Tibetan region, while they make up 92.8% of the population of the Chinese-defined Tibetan Autonomous Region, with 55.6% of Tibetans living outside of the TAR, in regions where they constitute a minority.

Economic growth and poverty reduction

Red China has had rapid economic growth and reduction of poverty after the death of Mao and the introduction of economic reforms. As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and the largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest manufacturing economy, the world's largest exporter, and second-largest importer. The Chinese economy is expected to soon become the largest also by nominal GDP.

Industrial espionage

The 2014 book Chinese Industrial Espionage: Technology Acquisition and Military Modernization

"rings alarm bells about technology theft on a scale that the authors say is unprecedented in history and that they believe has strategic implications. They claim that the U.S. government (for which two of the authors work) has underestimated the severity of the threat from China, prompting them to go public with a brief based entirely on open sources. Traditional espionage and hacking are only the most sensational techniques the Chinese authorities use to obtain proprietary information and technology. The others include employing a vast bureaucracy dedicated to collecting open-source material, demanding technology transfers from foreign investors in exchange for access to the Chinese market, participating in academic exchanges, and tapping ethnic Chinese professional and alumni associations in the West for intelligence. Innocent-sounding rhetoric about development and scholarship surrounds many of these activities, and many of the collection methods are legal. But the authors show that these intelligence and espionage activities constitute a strategic initiative guided from high levels of the Chinese government. They push back against what they anticipate will be charges of alarmism (and even racism) and argue that, so far, U.S. counterintelligence operations have been outmanned and outclassed."[12]

The head of the US NSA has described (Chinese) cyber espionage as the "greatest transfer of wealth in history".[13]

New Silk Road

Map of the Belt and Road Initiative. China in red, members of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in orange, the six land connections in black, and the sea connection in blue.

The "Belt and Road Initiative" or "The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road" is an infrastructure and development strategy proposed by the Chinese government, which focuses on connectivity and cooperation between Eurasian countries.

Aside from developmental and trade effects, the initiative may increase Chinese influence and may make it more difficult to blockade China.


China has made attempts to increase the importance of the Chinese currency yuan in world trade, especially the oil trade.[14]

Pro-China organizations in other countries

Confucius Institutes (CIs) are non-profit organization affiliated with the Chinese Ministry of Education, whose stated aim is to promote Chinese language and culture, support local Chinese teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges. As of 2014, there were over 480 Confucius Institutes in dozens of countries on six continents. The Ministry of Education has estimated that 100 million people overseas may be learning Chinese by 2010. The aim is to establish 1,000 Confucius Institutes by 2020.[15] The Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) is the official organization for overseas Chinese students and scholars registered in most colleges, universities, and institutions outside of China.[16]

The organizations have been accused of involvement in activities such as pro China propaganda, censorship demands, supervision of Chinese people outside of China (especially students and academics), and espionage.[17] China has made large scale attempts to spread pro-China views in mass media outside of China, such as by complete or partial ownership of mass media companies, paying for pro-China coverage in other mass media, and Chinese training of journalists from developing countries, such as 1,000 African journalists a year.[18]

Chinese immigration and influence of China

A 2018 Canadian intelligence report on New Zealand stated that China aimed to control the views of the Chinese expatriate community. Ultimately, to “extricate New Zealand from […] its traditional [military and intelligence] partners]”. Already, the influence of the Chinese Communist Party in New Zealand was now so deep that it raised questions about whether the country could continue to share intelligence with its traditional Western partners.[19]

Space program

In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space. China has not participated in the International Space Station, being banned by the United States. Instead, China has its own space station program. By 2025, China may be the only country with a permanent space station.[20] Various ambitious long-term plans have been stated.

Military technology

The West has actively tried to stop technology transfer regarding military technology. Despite this, in 2017, a report stated that Chinese military technology was reaching "near-parity" with the West. "Western dominance in the field of advanced weapons systems can no longer be taken for granted."[21] In some cases, China may have or soon have the more advanced technology.[22]

Improving Chinese military technology likely has consequences not just for the Chinese military, but will likely greatly increase Chinese arms export (one of the few remaining areas of manufacturing still dominated by Western countries), which may, in addition to the monetary and manufacturing aspects, increase Chinese influence in various ways and make Western military interventions also against non-China countries much more dangerous.

Jewish issues

A series of bestselling book in China are Currency Wars and sequels, which reportedly have been read by many senior level government and business leaders. A premise is that Western countries are ultimately controlled by a group of private banks. The books have been criticized for promoting anti-Semitic conspiracy theories.[23] Many Chinese have been stated to believe that Jewish influence is very large in the United States and the world.

"Scan the shelves in any bookstore in China and you are likely to find best-selling self-help books based on Jewish knowledge. Most focus on how to make cash. Titles range from "101 Money Earning Secrets From Jews’ Notebooks" to "Learn To Make Money With the Jews". [...] many Chinese believe the Jews to be “smart, rich, and very cunning.” Just before my visit to Nanjing, the Chinese tycoon Chen Guangbiao made international headlines by publicly announcing his ambitions to buy the "New York Times" and later the "Wall Street Journal". In a TV interview he explained that he would be an ideal newspaper magnate because “I am very good at working with Jews”—who, he said, controlled the media."[24]

There is a

"growing decade-long trend in which a network of loosely affiliated pro-Israeli organizations – largely Jewish American in character – and embracing a number of think tanks, universities, lobbyist groups, philanthropist foundations, and activist-scholars, are actively seeking to alter Chinese perceptions of Israel, with a particular focus on effecting this change among influential academic and policymaking institutions and universities there. The assumption underlying this approach is that in the absence of traditional channels for lobbying in China, influencing such centers of knowledge production becomes the only effective means of re-shaping Beijing’s views in ways that may serve Israeli interests over the long run. Many of these groups have traditionally been involved in pro-Israeli advocacy outreach in the United States and bring with them considerable logistical, organizational, and even ideational experience not to mention specific models of advocacy that they seek to reproduce within China."[25]

Comparison of argued Chinese and Jewish influence as minorities

Kevin MacDonald has written that

"Simply having a relatively high IQ does not imply the sort of adversarial culture that is described in CofC. Whereas there has been a strong trend for Jews to have a very large influence on the media, on the creation of culture, on information in the social sciences and humanities, and on the political process, this has not happened with the Oveseas Chinese in Southeast Asia despite their dominating position in the economies of the region and their high average IQ. The Chinese have not formed a cultural elite in Southeast Asian countries and have not been concentrated in media ownership or in the construction of culture.[26]
The following passage describing the political attitudes of the Overseas Chinese in Thailand could never have applied to Jews in Western societies since the Enlightenment:
But few seem to know or indeed to care about the restrictions on citizenship, nationality rights, and political activities in general, nor are these restrictions given much publicity in the Chinese press. This merely points up the fact, recognized by all observers, that the overseas Chinese are primarily concerned with making a living, or amassing a fortune, and thus take only a passive interest in the formal political life of the country in which they live."[26]

Anti-jewish sentiment in China

In their 2014 global survey of anti-semitism, the ADL found that 42% of respondents from China agreed that "Jews think they are better than other people", 32-33% agreed that "People hate Jews because of the way Jews behave", "Jews don't care what happens to anyone but their own kind", "Jews have too much power in the business world", "Jews have too much power in international financial markets", 31% agreed that "Jews still talk too much about what happened to them in the Holocaust", and 29% agreed that "Jews have too much control over global affairs".[27] The number of anti-jewish respondents is thus higher than in all Anglosphere and Western European countries with the exception of France, despite Jews in China numbering only around 3,000 as of 2021, or 0.0002% of the population, according to the Jewish Virtual Library[28].


Ethnic groups in China
Chinese English 2010 % 2020 % Change relative to population (%) Growth (%) 2010 sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2020 sex ratio Sex ratio change
合计 Total 1,332,810,869 100.00 1,409,778,724 100.00 -- 5.77 104.90 104.80 0.09
汉族 Han 1,220,844,520 91.60 1,284,446,389 91.11 -0.49 5.21 104.90 104.83 0.07
蒙古族 Mongolian 5,981,840 0.45 6,290,204 0.45 0.00 5.16 100.58 99.78 0.79
回族 Hui 10,586,087 0.79 11,377,914 0.81 0.02 7.48 103.1 102.29 0.81
藏族 Tibetan / Zang 6,282,187 0.47 7,060,731 0.50 0.03 12.39 100.93 99.33 1.6
维吾尔族 Uyghur 10,069,346 0.76 11,774,538 0.84 0.08 16.93 102.53 101.41 1.12
苗族 Miao 9,426,007 0.71 11,067,929 0.79 0.08 17.42 106.91 107.9 -0.99
彝族 Yi 8,714,393 0.65 9,830,327 0.70 0.04 12.81 104.66 103.14 1.52
壮族 Zhuang 16,926,381 1.27 19,568,546 1.39 0.12 15.61 105.49 107.22 -1.73
布依族 Buyi 2,870,034 0.22 3,576,752 0.25 0.04 24.62 102.93 105.21 -2.28
朝鲜族 Korean 1,830,929 0.14 1,702,479 0.12 -0.02 -7.02 98.93 95.16 3.77
满族 Manchu 10,387,958 0.78 10,423,303 0.74 -0.04 0.34 108.34 105.55 2.79
侗族 Dong 2,879,974 0.22 3,495,993 0.25 0.03 21.39 110.52 111.61 -1.08
瑶族 Yao 2,796,003 0.21 3,309,341 0.23 0.02 18.36 109.1 108.56 0.54
白族 Bai 1,933,510 0.15 2,091,543 0.15 0.00 8.17 102.57 101.76 0.81
土家族 Tujia 8,353,912 0.63 9,587,732 0.68 0.05 14.77 106.44 107.58 -1.14
哈尼族 Hani 1,660,932 0.12 1,733,166 0.12 0.00 4.35 108.25 106.17 2.08
哈萨克族 Kazakh / Qazaq 1,462,588 0.11 1,562,518 0.11 0.00 6.83 104.49 100.13 4.37
傣族 Dai 1,261,311 0.09 1,329,985 0.09 0.00 5.44 98.28 98.22 0.06
黎族 Li 1,463,064 0.11 1,602,104 0.11 0.00 9.50 107.21 107.7 -0.48
傈僳族 Lisu 702,839 0.05 762,996 0.05 0.00 8.56 102.28 100.41 1.87
佤族 Wa / Va 429,709 0.03 430,977 0.03 0.00 0.30 101.49 101.17 0.32
畲族 She 708,651 0.05 746,385 0.05 0.00 5.32 117.75 117.69 0.06
高山族 Gaoshan 4,009 0.00 3,479 0.00 0.00 -13.22 102.47 111.62 -9.14
拉祜族 Lahu 485,966 0.04 499,167 0.04 0.00 2.72 103.93 101.63 2.31
水族 Shui 411,847 0.03 495,928 0.04 0.01 20.42 107.79 110.6 -2.81
东乡族 Dongxian 621,500 0.05 774,947 0.05 0.00 24.69 104.43 102.01 2.42
纳西族 Naxi 326,295 0.02 323,767 0.02 0.00 -0.77 99.37 98.27 1.1
景颇族 Jingpo 147,828 0.01 160,471 0.01 0.00 8.55 93.21 95.13 -1.92
柯尔克孜族 Kyrgyz 186,708 0.01 204,402 0.01 0.00 9.48 102.8 101.8 1.01
土族 Tu 289,565 0.02 281,928 0.02 0.00 -2.64 104.63 104.6 0.03
达斡尔族 Daur 131,992 0.01 132,299 0.01 0.00 0.23 96.63 94.41 2.22
仫佬族 Mulao 216,257 0.02 277,233 0.02 0.00 28.20 104.52 105.1 -0.58
羌族 Qiang 309,576 0.02 312,981 0.02 0.00 1.10 102.29 101.43 0.86
布朗族 Blang 119,639 0.01 127,345 0.01 0.00 6.44 104.83 102.97 1.86
撒拉族 Salar 130,607 0.01 165,159 0.01 0.00 26.45 103.04 101.61 1.43
毛南族 Maonan 101,192 0.01 124,092 0.01 0.00 22.63 109.26 109.44 -0.17
仡佬族 Gelao 550,746 0.04 677,521 0.05 0.01 23.02 110.71 112.86 -2.15
锡伯族 Xibe 190,481 0.01 191,911 0.01 0.00 0.75 109.53 105.46 4.07
阿昌族 Achang 39,555 0.00 43,775 0.00 0.00 10.67 99.73 99.57 0.17
普米族 Pumi 42,861 0.00 45,012 0.00 0.00 5.02 100.02 98.82 1.21
塔吉克族 Tajik 51,069 0.00 50,896 0.00 0.00 -0.34 104.63 101.83 2.8
怒族 Nu 37,523 0.00 36,575 0.00 0.00 -2.53 101.56 101.37 0.19
乌孜别克族 Uzbek 10,569 0.00 12,742 0.00 0.00 20.56 115.87 112.44 3.43
俄罗斯族 Eluosi / Russian 15,393 0.00 16,136 0.00 0.00 4.83 89.83 89.37 0.46
鄂温克族 Ewenki / Evenk 30,875 0.00 34,617 0.00 0.00 12.12 90.5 92.1 -1.6
德昂族 De'ang 20,556 0.00 22,354 0.00 0.00 8.75 95.45 98.88 -3.42
保安族 Baoan 20,074 0.00 24,434 0.00 0.00 21.72 99.58 101.85 -2.27
裕固族 Yugu 14,378 0.00 14,706 0.00 0.00 2.28 103.86 99.73 4.13
京族 Jing 28,199 0.00 33,112 0.00 0.00 17.42 104.59 107.57 -2.98
塔塔尔族 Tatar 3,556 0.00 3,544 0.00 0.00 -0.34 114.6 110.83 3.78
独龙族 Drung / Dulong 6,930 0.00 7,310 0.00 0.00 5.48 93.52 95.04 -1.52
鄂伦春族 Oroqen 8,659 0.00 9,168 0.00 0.00 5.88 87.18 89.34 -2.16
赫哲族 Hezhen 5,354 0.00 5,373 0.00 0.00 0.35 98.08 90.87 7.21
门巴族 Monba 10,561 0.00 11,143 0.00 0.00 5.51 99.26 99.16 0.1
珞巴族 Lhoba 3,682 0.00 4,237 0.00 0.00 15.07 95.96 93.91 2.04
基诺族 Jinuo / Jino 23,143 0.00 26,025 0.00 0.00 12.45 103.03 99.88 3.14
其他未识别的民族 Other unidentified/undecided ethnicity 640,101 0.05 836,488 0.06 0.01 30.68 109.74 110.49 -0.75
外国人加入中国籍 Foreigners Become Chinese Nationals 1,448 0.00 16,595 0.00 0.00 1,046.06 62.51 78.65 -16.14

Demographic takeaways

The average life expectancy in 2019 was highest (78-83 years) on the eastern coast from Guangdong to Beijing, lowest (70-73) in the western regions of Xinjiang, Tibet and Qinghai, and intermediate in all the other regions.

The sex ratio at birth in 2010 was 118 males for 100 females. In western countries it's typically 105 males for 100 females.[29]

Males are 51.24% of the population as of the 2020 census, which equals an excess of 33 million men[30] who are statistically doomed to never reproduce unless they move to countries with a surplus of reproductively-aged females.

In a study from 2019[31]: the average Chinese man is 169.7 centimetres tall (5 ft 7 in) and weighs 69.6 kilograms (153.4 pounds or 11 stone), and the average Chinese woman is 158 cm tall (5 ft 2 in) and weighs 59 kg (130.1 lbs or 9 stone 4 lbs).

TFR by ethnicity in 2010: Han (1.14), Manchu (1.18), Mongols (1.26), Hui (1.48), Zhuang (1.59), Tibetan (1.60), Tujia (1.74), Miao (1.82), Yi (1.82), Uyghur (2.04).[32]

Falling birth rates and countermeasures

In 2016, after 37 years of its infamous one-child-policy, China adopted a two-child policy. Despite this, birth rates continued to decline.

In 2020, the TFR was 1.1 in cities, 1.4 in towns and 1.5 in rural areas, averaging 1.3 children per woman, lower than most European countries.

In 2021, China changed its two-child policy to a three-child policy. Before the three-child policy, families having a third child were fined 130,000 yuan (around 20,000 dollars). The three-child policy did not have a significant effect on the ever-declining birth rates.

In 2022, the average TFR was reported to be 1.1.[33], lower than any White country. Approximately 15% of the 9.5 million newborns in 2022 were third-children.

Various incentives to reverse the falling birth rates have been implemented and proposed. More coercive measures may be implemented if these do not work.[34]

Whites in modern China

Over 126,000 Westerners from North America and Europe live in China[35]. The Cossack-descendent Russian minority known as the Eluosi settled China in the 17th century and numbers over 16,000. The original Eluosi culture is claimed to be dying out and replaced by a hybrid Sino-Russian culture, with mixed-race relationships becoming increasingly more common.


During the Cultural Revolution, religion in China was severely suppressed. Many organisations were disbanded, property was confiscated or damaged, monks and nuns were sent home or killed in violent struggle sessions.[36] According to the 1978 constitution, no state organ, private organisation, or individual is allowed to discriminate based on belief on God. The state officially recognises five religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism, and Islam.

Currently, the religious demographics are as follow:

  • Muslims around 0.5%, over 50% in Xinjiang.
  • Christians around 2%, peaking in the Henan (6%) and Anhui (5%) regions, Macau (5%) and Hong Kong (12%). Around 90% of Christians in China are Protestant, many of whom are independents unaffiliated with "state-approved" Christian churches.
  • Taoists around 8%, with the strongest Taoist influence found in the four Southern regions of Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi, and Guangdong.
  • Buddhists around 16%, mostly in the Tibetan Autonomous Region where they represent over 70% of the population, and in Guangdong and Taiwan at over 30%.
  • Atheists around 50-60%, yet around 60% of the Chinese population practises ancestral worship or folk religions, hence the number of western-style atheists that believes exclusively in science is much smaller.

See also


  • Dikotter, Frank, Mao's Great Famine, Bloomsbury Publishing plc., London, 2010, ISBN: 978-0-7475-9508-3

External links



  1. Hart, M. H. (2007). Understanding human history: An analysis including the effects of geography and differential evolution. Washington Summit Publishers.
  2. Chua, Amy (2002). World on Fire. Doubleday.
  3. Lynn, Richard. The global bell curve: Race, IQ, and inequality worldwide. Washington Summit Publishers, 2008.
  4. Why 1 million Chinese migrants are building a new empire in Africa
  5. Chinese migrants have changed the face of South Africa. Now they’re leaving.
  6. Chinese Migration to Latin America and the Caribbean
  7. 7.0 7.1 Other People’s Nationalism: China
  8. Goran Štrkalj. The Status of the Race Concept in Contemporary Biological Anthropology: A Review. Anthropologist, 9(1): 73-78 (2007)
  9. On the Concept of Race in Chinese Biological Anthropology: Alive and Well. Qian Wang, Goran Štrkalj, and Li Sun. Current Anthropology. Vol. 44, No. 3 (June 2003), p. 403
  10. 10.0 10.1 Communist Crimes: China
  11. China Tackles ‘Masculinity Crisis,’ Tries to Stop ‘Effeminate’ Boys
  13. NSA Chief: Cybercrime constitutes the “greatest transfer of wealth in history”
  14. China’s petroyuan is going global, and gunning for the US dollar
  15. Confucius Institute
  16. Chinese Students and Scholars Association
  17. China Infiltrates American Campuses
  18. Inside China's audacious global propaganda campaign
  19. Immigration Makes Chinese Communist Party So Influential In New Zealand It's Unsafe To Share Intel With The NZ Government
  20. What China’s Upcoming Space Station Means for the World
  21. Chinese weapons are reaching 'near-parity' with the West after Beijing spent $145billion on defense in 2016 - nearly twice that of South Korea and Japan combined and second only to the US
  22. China’s terrifying and deadly arsenal of weapons
  23. Wikipedia: Currency Wars.
  24. The Chinese Believe That the Jews Control America. Is That a Good Thing?
  25. An Israeli Lobby in China?
  26. 26.0 26.1 A Reply to Jordan Peterson
  34. China Stepping Up Measures to Boost the Birth Rate
  37. The Chinese Corporatist State: Adaptation, Survival and Resistance