Tunisia

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Tunisian Republic
Flag of Tunisia Coat of arms of Tunisia
Anthem: Humat Al Hima
Capital
and largest city
Tunis
36°50′N 10°9′E / 36.833°N 10.15°E / 36.833; 10.15
Official languages Arabic[1]
1st Foreign language French
Demonym Tunisian
Government Presidential republic[1]
 -  Acting President Foued Mebazaa
 -  Prime Minister Beji Caid el Sebsi
Independence
 -  from France March 20, 1956 
Area
 -  Total 163,610 km2 (92nd)
63,170 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 5.0
Population
 -  Apr 2, 2011 estimate 10,432,500[2] (79th)
 -  2011 census 11,245,284[2]
 -  Density 63/km2 (133rd (2005))
163/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $96.001 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $9,025.067[3]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $43.684 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $4,106.747[3]
Gini (2000)39.8
medium
HDI (2010)increase 0.683[4]
Error: Invalid HDI value · 81st
Currency Tunisian dinar (TND)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Calling code 216
Internet TLD .tn Template:Rtl-lang[5]

Tunisia officially the Tunisian Republic is a country situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and Libya to the southeast. It is the northernmost country on the continent and the smallest of the countries situated along the Atlas mountain range. Around forty percent of the country is composed of the Sahara desert, with much of the remainder consisting of particularly fertile soil, and a 1400km coastline.

Today's Tunisia played a prominent role in ancient times, first with the famous city of Carthage, said to have been founded by refugees from Troy, later as a province which became known as the bread basket of the Roman Empire. It susbsequently changed hands several times, including Norman invasions from Sicily, but ultimately fell under the control of Mohammedans. Under the Ottoman Empire it enjoyed autonomy under its leader, the Bey of Tunis.

In 1869, having spent vast sums attempting to develop and modernise the country, Tunisia declared itself bankrupt, and an international financial commission took control over its economy. In 1881, using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, France invaded with an army of about 36,000 and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id). With this treaty, Tunisia was officially made a French Protectorate, over the objections of Italy. Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Tunisia Constitution". Retrieved on 2011-04-02. Translation by the University of Bern: Tunisia is a free State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic.
  2. 2.0 2.1 National Statistics Online. National Statistics Institute of Tunisia (July 2009). Retrieved on 7 January 2009. (Arabic)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Tunisia. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on 2011-05-10.
  4. Human Development Report 2010. United Nations (2010). Retrieved on 5 November 2010.
  5. Report on the Delegation of تونس.. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (2010). Retrieved on 8 November 2010.