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—  State of Germany  —
Left to right: City skyline, Berliner Fernsehturm, Brandenburger Tor, Rotes Rathaus, Reichstag, and Berliner Dom


Coat of arms
Location within European Union and Germany
Coordinates: 52°30′2″N 13°23′56″E / 52.50056°N 13.39889°E / 52.50056; 13.39889Coordinates: 52°30′2″N 13°23′56″E / 52.50056°N 13.39889°E / 52.50056; 13.39889
Country Germany
 - Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD)
 - Governing parties SPD / The Left
 - Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69)
 - City 891.85 km2 (344.3 sq mi)
Elevation 34 - 115 m (-343 ft)
Population (30 September 2010)[1]
 - City 3,450,889
 Density 3,869.4/km2 (10,021.6/sq mi)
 Metro 4,429,847
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code(s) 10001–14199
Area code(s) 030
ISO 3166 code DE-BE
Vehicle registration B
GDP/ Nominal € 94.7 billion (2010) [2]
NUTS Region DE3

Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. With a population of 3.4 million in its city limits, Berlin is the country's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the ninth most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan area, comprising 4.9 million people from over 180 nations.

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was successively the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918), the German Empire (1871-1918), the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and the Third Reich (1933-1945). After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a Western enclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall from 1961-1989. Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, the city regained its status as the capital of all Germany.

Berlin is a major center in European politics, culture, media, and science. It serves as a continental hub for air and rail transport. The city's economy is primarily based on the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, media corporations, environmental services, congress and convention venues. Berlin is the third most-visited tourist destination in the EU. Other industries include traffic engineering, optoelectronics, IT, vehicle manufacturing, health care, biomedical engineering, and biotechnology.


Berlin has a temperate oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system.

Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22 - and lows of 12 -. Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of 3 C and lows of -2 to. Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings. Temperatures can be 4 C-change higher in the city than in the surrounding areas.[3]

Annual precipitation is 570 mm with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through March, but snow cover does not usually remain for long. The recent winter of 2009/2010 was an exception since there was a permanent snow cover from late December till early March.[4]


  1. Bevölkerungsentwicklung und Bevölkerungsstand in Berlin 3. Quartal 2010 (German). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (January 2011). Retrieved on 7 April 2011.
  2. Bruttoinlandsprodukt (nominal) in BERLIN seit 1995 (German) (30 March 2010). Retrieved on 15 May 2011.
  3. Retrieved on 7 April 2012.
  4. Climate figures. World Weather Information Service. Retrieved on 18 August 2008.
Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.