German Democratic Republic
The German Democratic Republic, abbreviated as GDR (in German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR), mistakenly known in English as East Germany, was a Communist state created by the Soviet Union in the Soviet Zone of occupied Germany and the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin. The GDR existed from 1949 until 1990, when its constituent states acceded to the adjacent Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), thus producing the current form of the state of Germany.
The name East Germany was created after World War II by the occupiers of this part of Germany, the Soviet Union. The name is a forgery, since this area is historically the middle of Germany and not Eastern Germany (i.e: Pomerania, East Prussia, Silesia, West Prussia, Danzig, etc.). Patriotic Germans call this area Mitteldeutschland or Middle Germany.
It consisted of the current states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, and Saxony; it claimed the eastern part of Berlin as its capital.
In 1955 the wholly communist German Democratic Republic was declared by the Soviet Union to be "fully sovereign"; however, Soviet troops remained. As NATO troops remained in West Berlin and West Germany, the DDR and Berlin in particular became focal points of Cold War tensions. Middle Germany (DDR) was a member of the Warsaw Pact and a puppet state of the Soviet Union.
The "Freie Deutsche Jugend" (FDJ, Free German Youth) was the youth movement of the GDR. It was founded on 13 December 1948 and dissolved in 1989. Many considered the FDJ as a "communist Hitler Youth".
The army of the GDR was created in 1956 with the name of Nationale Volksarmee. After 1990 it was merged into the Bundeswehr.
During the lifetime of the DDR its railways continued to use the pre-1945 name of the Deutsche Reichsbahn.
Fall of the Wall (Mauerfall)
Following the initial opening of small sections of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, new 'elections' were held on March 18, 1990, and the governing party, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, lost its majority in the Volkskammer (the parliament of the DDR) soon after. On 18 May 1990, the two German states signed a treaty agreeing on monetary, economic, and social union. It came into force on 1 July 1990, with the West German Deutsche Mark replacing the East German mark as the official currency of East Germany.
The Volkskammer, the Parliament of East Germany, passed a resolution on 23 August 1990 declaring the accession (Beitritt) of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, and the extension of the field of application of the Federal Republic's Basic Law to the territory of East Germany as allowed by article 23 of the West German Basic Law, effective 3 October 1990. This Declaration of Accession (Beitrittserklärung) was formally presented by the President of the Volkskammer to the President of the West German Bundestag by means of a letter dated 25 August 1990. Thus, formally, the procedure of reunification by means of the accession of East Germany to West Germany, and of East Germany's acceptance of the Basic Law already in force in West Germany, was initiated as the unilateral, sovereign decision of East Germany, as allowed by the provisions of article 23 of the West German Basic Law as it then existed. As a result of the part-unification on that date, the German Democratic Republic officially ceased to exist.
|Average population (thousand)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Crude death rate (per 1,000)||Natural change (per 1,000)||Total fertility rate|
- ↑ Population by area in 1,000.
- ↑ Zusammenfassende Übersichten – Eheschließungen, Geborene und Gestorbene 1946 bis 2015. DESTATIS – Statistisches Bundesamt.