Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was a Chilean army general and politician. Among his titles, he was the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean army from 1973 to 1998, president of the Government Junta of Chile from 1973 to 1974 and President of the Republic from 1974 to 1990.
At the beginning of 1972, he was appointed General Chief of Staff of the Army. In August 1973, he was appointed as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army by communist president Salvador Allende. On 11 September 1973, with active support from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Pinochet led a coup d'état which put an end to Allende's Marxist government. In December 1974, the military junta appointed Pinochet as President by a joint decree.
The new government implemented economic reforms, including the privatization of several state-controlled industries and the rollback of many state welfare institutions. These policies produced what has been referred to as the "miracle of Chile." Pinochet's economic policies were continued and strengthened by successive governments after 1990.
Pinochet's presidency was given a legal framework through a plebiscite in 1980, which approved a new Constitution drafted by a government-appointed commission. A plebiscite in 1988 led to elections for the Presidency and Parliament. After leaving office in 1990, Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until March 10, 1998, when he retired and became a senator-for-life in accordance with the 1980 Constitution.
- CNN.com - CIA acknowledges involvement in Allende's overthrow, Pinochet's rise - September 19, 2000
- CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression
- Thomas M. Leonard. Encyclopedia Of The Developing World. Routledge. ISBN 1579583881 p. 322