America First Committee
The America First Committee (AFC) (also informally known as the America First Movement) was the foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II. Peaking at 850,000 members and 650 chapters, it was likely the largest anti-war organization in American history. Formed on September 4, 1940 it ended after the attack upon Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Recent organizations with similar names are not connected to this historic group.
AFC was established September 4, 1940 by Yale Law School student R. Douglas Stuart, Jr., along with other students including future President Gerald Ford, future Peace Corps director Sargent Shriver, and future Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart. At its peak, America First may have had 800,000 members in 650 chapters, located mostly in a 300-mile radius of Chicago.
The AFC gained much of its early strength by merging with the more left-wing Keep America out of War Committee, whose leaders had included such mainstays of America First as Norman Thomas and John T. Flynn.
It claimed 135,000 members in 60 chapters in Illinois, its strongest state. Fundraising drives produced about $370,000 from some 25,000 contributors. Nearly half came from a few millionaires such as William H. Regnery, H. Smith Richardson of the Vick Chemical Company, General Robert E. Wood of Sears-Roebuck, Sterling Morton of Morton Salt Company, publisher Joseph M. Patterson (New York Daily News) and his cousin publisher Robert R. McCormick (Chicago Tribune). Future President John F. Kennedy sent a contribution, with a note saying "What you are doing is vital."
AFC was never able to get funding for its own public opinion poll. The New York chapter received slightly more than $190,000, most of it from its 47,000 contributors. Since it never had a national membership form or national dues, and local chapters were quite autonomous, historians suggest the leaders had no idea how many "members" it had. Some special chapters were formed for recruiting Blacks.
Serious organizing of the America First Committee took place in Chicago not long after the September 1940 establishment. Chicago was to remain the national headquarters of the committee. To preside over their committee, America First chose General Robert E. Wood, the 61 year-old chairman of Sears, Roebuck and Co.. While Wood would accept only an interim position, he remained at the head of the committee until it was disbanded on December 12, days after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The America First Committee had its share of prominent businessmen as well as the sympathies of political figures including Democratic Senators Burton K. Wheeler and David I. Walsh, Republican Senator Gerald P. Nye, and Socialist Party leader Norman Thomas, with its most prominent spokesman being Charles A. Lindbergh.
Other celebrities supporting America First were novelist Sinclair Lewis, poet E. E. Cummings, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, film producer Walt Disney, and actress Lillian Gish. Architect Frank Lloyd Wright attempted to join, but the board thought he had a "reputation for immorality". The many student chapters included future celebrities, such as author Gore Vidal (as a student at Phillips Exeter Academy), and the aforementioned future President Gerald Ford, at Yale Law School. The AFC had their own youth branch called the Young People's Group of the America First Committee.
The America First Committee launched a petition aimed at enforcing the 1939 Neutrality Act and forcing President Franklin D. Roosevelt to keep his pledge to keep America out of the war. They strongly distrusted Roosevelt, arguing that he was lying to the American people.
On the day after Roosevelt's lend-lease bill was submitted to the United States Congress, Wood promised AFC opposition "with all the vigor it can exert." America First staunchly opposed the convoying of ships, the Atlantic Charter, and the placing of economic pressure on Japan. In order to achieve the defeat of lend-lease and the perpetuation of American neutrality, the AFC advocated four basic principles:
- The United States must build an impregnable defense for America.
- No foreign power, nor group of powers, can successfully attack a prepared America.
- American democracy can be preserved only by keeping out of the European war.
- "Aid short of war" weakens national defense at home and threatens to involve America in war abroad.
Despite the onset of war in Europe, an overwhelming majority of the American people wanted to stay out of the new war if they could. The AFC tapped into this widespread anti-war feeling in the years leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor and the U.S. entry into the war. The America First Committee favored a negotiated peace between the warring powers in Europe.
Charles Lindbergh had been actively involved in questioning the motives of the Roosevelt administration well before the formation of the AFC. Lindbergh adopted an anti-war stance even before the Battle of Britain and before the advent of the lend-lease bill. His first radio speech was broadcast on September 15, 1939 over all three of the major radio networks (Mutual, National, and Columbia). Lindbergh urged listeners to look beyond the speeches and propaganda they were being fed and instead look at who was writing the speeches and reports, who owned the papers and who influenced the speakers.
On June 20, 1941 Lindbergh spoke to a rally in Los Angeles billed as "Peace and Preparedness Mass Meeting". In his speech of that day, Lindbergh criticized those movements he perceived as leading America into the war. He proclaimed that the United States was in a position that made it virtually impregnable and he pointed out that when interventionists said "the defense of England" they really meant "defeat of Germany".
Nothing did more to escalate the tensions than the speech he delivered to a rally in Des Moines, Iowa on September 11, 1941. In that speech he identified the forces pulling America into the war as the British, the Roosevelt administration, and the Jews. While he expressed sympathy for the plight of the Jews in Germany, he argued that America's entry into the war would serve them little better. He said in part:
It is not difficult to understand why Jewish people desire the overthrow of Nazi Germany. The persecution they suffered in Germany would be sufficient to make bitter enemies of any race. No person with a sense of the dignity of mankind can condone the persecution the Jewish race suffered in Germany. But no person of honesty and vision can look on their pro-war policy here today without seeing the dangers involved in such a policy, both for us and for them.
Instead of agitating for war the Jewish groups in this country should be opposing it in every possible way, for they will be among the first to feel its consequences. Tolerance is a virtue that depends upon peace and strength. History shows that it cannot survive war and devastation. A few farsighted Jewish people realize this and stand opposed to intervention. But the majority still do not. Their greatest danger to this country lies in their large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio, and our government.
With the formal declaration of war against Japan following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Committee chose to disband. On December 11 the committee leaders met and voted for dissolution. In the statement they released to the press was the following:
Our principles were right. Had they been followed, war could have been avoided. No good purpose can now be served by considering what might have been, had our objectives been attained...
Officers and staff
- Fred Chase, executive secretary
- Lansing Hoyt was Wisconsin state chairman of the America First Committee.
- Richard A. Moore, director of publicity
- Sherwood Anderson
- W. H. Auden
- Charles Beard
- Pearl Buck
- William R. Castle
- Senator David Worth Clark
- E. E. Cummings
- Theodore Dreiser
- John Flynn
- Perry Howard, Black Republican Washington attorney
- Sinclair Lewis
- Alice Roosevelt Longworth
- Edgar Lee Masters
- H. L. Mencken
- Henry Miller
- Senator Gerald P. Nye
- Kathleen Norris
- Senator Burton K. Wheeler
- Frank Lloyd Wright
- Gore Vidal
- Women United
- Scribner's Commentator
- Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, 1940
- American Action Inc.
- Americans for Peace
- No Foreign War Committee
- List of nationalist meetings and demonstrations in America (1941)
- Lineage of American Nationalist organizations and individuals
- Wayne S. Cole, America First: The Battle against Intervention, 1940-41 (1953)
- (2003) A story of America First: the men and women who opposed U. S. intervention in World War II. New York: Praeger, xvii. ISBN 0-275-97512-6.
- Schneider p 198
- Cole 1953, 25-33; Schneider 201-2
- AMERICA FIRST: The Battle Against Intervention 1940-1941, by Wayne S. Cole, page 28
- News Research Service News Letter Vol. 5. Number 149, page 2, June 4, 1941
- AMERICA FIRST: The Battle Against Intervention 1940-1941, by Wayne S. Cole, page 38
- Cole 1953, p 144
- Kahn, A. E., and M. Sayers. The Great Conspiracy: The Secret War Against Soviet Russia. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1946, chap. XXIII (American Anti-Comintern), part 5: Lone Eagle, pp. 365-378. Kahn, A.E., and M. Sayers. The Plot against the Peace: A Warning to the Nation!. 1st ed. New York: Dial Press, 1945, chap. X (In the Name of Peace), pp. 187-209.
- On the Brink of World War II: Justus Doenecke’s Storm on the Horizon
Primary research material
- America First Committee records, 1940-1942, Hoover Archives 
- Cole, Wayne S. Charles A. Lindbergh and the Battle against American Intervention in World War II (1974)
- America First: The Battle against Intervention, 1940-41 by Wayne S. Cole (1953)
- Doenecke, Justus D. The Battle Against Intervention, 1939-1941 (1997), includes short narrative and primary documents.
- Doenecke, Justus D. Storm on the Horizon: The Challenge to American Intervention, 1939-1941 (2000).
- Doenecke, Justus D. "American Isolationism, 1939-1941" Journal of Libertarian Studies, Summer/Fall 1982, 6(3), pp. 201–216. online version
- Doenecke, Justus D. "Explaining the Antiwar Movement, 1939-1941: The Next Assignment" Journal of Libertarian Studies, Winter 1986, 8(1), pp. 139–162. online version
- Doenecke, Justus D. "Literature of Isolationism, 1972-1983: A Bibliographic Guide" Journal of Libertarian Studies, Spring 1983, 7(1), pp. 157–184. online version
- Doenecke, Justus D. "Anti-Interventionism of Herbert Hoover" Journal of Libertarian Studies, Summer 1987, 8(2), pp. 311–340. online version
- Goodman, David, “Loving and Hating Britain: Rereading the Isolationist Debate in the USA,” in Britishness Abroad: Transnational Movements and Imperial Cultures, ed. Kate Darian-Smith, Patricia Grimshaw, and Stuart Macintyre, pp 187–204. (Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 2007) isbn 978-0-522-85392-6
- Gordon, David. America First: the Anti-War Movement, Charles Lindbergh and the Second World War, 1940-1941; presentation to The New York Military Affairs Symposium in 2003
- Jonas, Manfred. Isolationism in America, 1935-1941 (1966).
- S. Everett Gleason and William L. Langer; The Undeclared War, 1940-1941 (1953). Policy toward war in Europe; pro FDR
- Kauffman, Bill, America First!: Its History, Culture, and Politics (1995) ISBN 0-87975-956-9
- Parmet, Herbert S., and Marie B. Hecht; Never Again: A President Runs for a Third Term 1968.
- Schneider, James C. Should America Go to War? The Debate over Foreign Policy in Chicago, 1939-1941 (1989)