Soviet Union

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Countries that had Communist governments in red, and countries that the USSR believed at one point to be "moving toward socialism" in orange. Not all of the bright red countries remained Soviet allies.

The Soviet Union, short for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), was the first major Communist dictatorship in the world following the October Revolution, 1917, succeeding the Russian Empire, and lasted until its disintegration, or implosion, in 1991.[1]

During its existence they murdered 66 million of their own citizens, including 200,000 members of the Christian clergy, and destroyed 40,000 churches.[2]


Flag of the Soviet Union
The left and violence
Hate crime
Leftist supremacism
Social anarchism
Mass killings under
Communist regimes
Mass killings under Communist regimes
Great Purge
Red Terror
War Communism

The Soviet Union is notorious for the largest atrocities and mass killings in human history[3] (until Mao's Red China[4]), under the leaderships of Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin. Hungary’s Regent, Admiral Horthy, wrote to twenty-three heads of state in October 1932, on the possibilities of joining forces against the Soviet Union, which he described as "a dangerous purulent abscess on the body of mankind". In his letter he said that "for fifteen years Soviet Russia has been conducting a war of extermination", clear evidence that European leaders knew the full nature of Bolshevism.[5]

Secret relations with Weimar Germany

Weimar Germany sought to circumvent the Treaty of Versailles, imposed by the Western plutocratic Allies, by engaging in secret agreements with the Soviet Union covering a wide range of matters, throughout the 1920s. In 1921 a number of German firms (among them Junkers, Krupp, and Stolzenberg) were encouraged - and partly financed - by the Reichswehr to provide military-technical assistance for Russia in the reconstruction of her shattered armaments industry. By 1924 German assistance had led to the creation of a joint German-Soviet company for the manufacture of poison gas, a factory for aircraft production organized as a German concession, and a number of Soviet munitions plants under the supervision of German technicians. The purpose of the 1926 Treaty of Berlin was to stabilize the German-Soviet partnership. The hard core of the agreement was a promise by Germany and the Soviet Union that they would maintain scrupulous neutrality in any conflict stemming from an unprovoked attack on one of them by another state. The signatories further promised that in the event of such a crisis they would not participate in economic or financial measures against each other. Germany also exchanged notes saying that while it was a member of the League of Nations that would not conflict with a policy of friendship towards the USSR and promised it would "energetically oppose" anti-Soviet machinations at Geneva. Meanwhile their military relations and co-operation were shrouded in secrecy. This co-operation had indispensable technical military benefits not obtainable elsewhere. It allowed the Germans to test weapons and equipment denied them by Versailles and to train military personnel in their use.

The Soviets used it to exploit German military and technical prowess in the development of their deficient and backward military establishment. Of three German bases eventually put into operation the first and most important was a flying school at Lipetsk, about 250 miles south-west of Moscow, which was started in 1924. It conducted its initial training course for fighter pilots the following year. Observer training was added to its programme in 1928, the year that also saw Lipetsk emerge as an important centre for the technical and operational testing of prototypes of new German combat aircraft. The testing projects, which at one stage required the services of as many as 200 German technicians, enabled the Reichswehr and German aircraft firms to freeze proven types of fighter planes and short and long-term reconnaissance aircraft for eventual mass production. The Red Army, for its part, shared fully in the benefits of both programmes, which included a tank school and testing centre near Kazan, first used as a training ground for tanks, artillery and communications after 1926. It entered its most important phase in 1929 as a testing site for prototypes of heavy and light tanks developed by Krupp and Rheinmetall on contract to the Reichswehr, and the adaption of foreign-made tanks for German purposes. It is argued that these clandestine military ties played a crucial role in the build-up of the German and to a lesser extent the Soviet military establishments, especially by the Reichswehr, which also had bases on Soviet soil for the development of prohibited (to them) types of weapons.[6]


A number of treaties and agreements were concluded by the Soviet Union, including:

  • Treaty of Brest Litovsk, Soviet Russia with the Central Powers, signed 3 March 1918.[7] Denounced in 1919 by the western Allies who refused to recognize it as valid. This action was entirely illegal.
  • Anglo-Soviet Trade Agreement 16 March 1921.[8]. By this, Soviet Russia secured de facto recognition from the world's most important capitalist state.
  • Treaty of Rapallo, 16 April 1922. Threats and counter-threats to collect debts and enforce reparations payments brought Germany and the Soviet Union together when they concluded the 'Treaty of Rapallo' agreeing to eliminate all claims between themselves, both ways, and for Germany to formally recognize the Soviet Union and resume diplomatic relations.[9]
  • Convention between Japan and the Soviet Union, dated at Peking, 20 January 1925.[10]
  • Treaty of Berlin, 24 April 1926, between the Soviet Union and Weimar Germany, confirmed Rapallo as well as other 'friendly relations'.
  • Conciliation Convention between Germany and the Soviet Union, 25 January 1929.[11]
  • Protocol concluded between the Soviet Union, Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Romania giving effect to the Pact of Paris renouncing war, 9th February 1929.
  • Non-aggression Treaty between the Soviet Union and Finland, 21 January 1932.[12]
  • Soviet-Polish Non-aggression Pact, 25 July 1932.[13]
  • Non-aggression Pact between the Soviet Union and France, 29 November 1932.[14]
  • Convention concluded between the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, Estonia, Latvia, Persia, Poland and Romania regarding the definition of aggression, 3 July 1933.
  • United States of America formally recognised the Soviet Union in Nov/Dec 1933.[15]
  • Mutual Assistance Treaty between the Soviet Union and France, 2nd May 1935.[16][17] Aimed at Germany.
  • Mutual Assistance Treaty between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia 16 May 1935.[18] Aimed at Germany.
  • Non-Aggression Pact between the Soviet Union and China, 21 August 1937.[19]
  • Joint Soviet-Polish Statement 26 November 1938 regarding the 1932 pact and extending it to the end of 1945.[20]
  • Trade Agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany dated 19 August 1939.[21]
  • Non-aggression Treaty between the Soviet Union and Germany, signed at Moscow, 23 August 1939; ratified by the Soviets on August 31st.[22]
  • Boundary and Friendship Treaty between the Soviet Union and Germany, signed at Moscow, 28 September 1939.[23]
  • Pact of Mutual Assistance between the Soviet Union and Latvia, 5 October 1939.[24]
  • Commercial Agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany, 11 February 1940.[25]
  • Non-Aggression Pact between the Soviet Union and the Japanese Empire signed at Moscow, 13 April 1941.
  • Czechoslovak-Soviet [military] Agreement signed by the [[illegal] exiled Czechs in London,18 July, 1941.[26]
  • Agreement between the Soviet Union and the so-called and illegal Polish Government-in-Exile in London on non-recognition of any territorial changes in Poland since August 1939. 30 July 1941.[27]
  • Agreement between the Soviet Union and the so-called and Polish Government-in-Exile in London on Mutual Assistance etc., 30 July 1941.[28]
  • Declaration of Polish-Soviet Friendship and Mutual Assistance signed by former General Wladislav Sikorski in Moscow, 4 December 1941.[29] Entirely illegal.
  • Alliance Treaty between the Soviet Union, Britain, and Iran, 29 January 1942.[30]
  • Alliance Treaty between Britain and the Soviet Union, signed at London 26 May 1942.[31]
  • Declaration by the Soviet Union, United States and Great Britain that they regarded the March 1938 Anschluss of Austria with Germany as null and void, 1943.
  • Soviet Union severs diplomatic relations with the so-called Polish Government-in-Exile in London, 25 April 1943.[32]
  • Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance and Post-War Co-operation between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia signed without legal authority by exiled Czechs in London on 18 July 1941, and reconfirmed 12 December 1943.[33]
  • Agreement between the Soviet Union and the illegal exiled Czechs in London regarding the administration of 'liberated' Czechoslovak territories, signed 8 May 1944.[34]
  • Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance between the Soviet Union and France (being the illegal Allied-installed unelected Provisional Government), 10 December 1944.[35]
  • Agreement regarding Friendship, Mutual Assistance and Post-War Co-operation between the Soviet Union and the Polish Republic, signed at Moscow, 21 April 1945.[36]
  • Statement by the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the illegal Provisional Government of France on Zones of Occupation in Germany, 5 June 1945.[37]
  • Potsdam Protocol an "understanding" following the conference of the same name signed by the Soviet Union (Stalin), the United States (President Truman) and Great Britain (Prime Minister Attlee) on 2 August 1945.[38]
  • Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Soviet Union and China, 14 August 1945.[39]
  • Treaty of Friendship, Collaboration and Mutual Assistance between the Romanian People's Republic and the Soviet Union, Moscow, 4 Feb 1948.[40]
  • Treaty between the Soviet Union and Poland concerning the frontier and mutual assistance in frontier matters, Moscow, 15 February 1951.[41]
  • Declaration of the Government of the Soviet Union concerning the assumption of full sovereignty by the German Democratic Republic (DDR), 25 March 1954.[42]
  • Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance between Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union (Warsaw Pact) signed at Warsaw, 14 May 1955.[43]
  • State Treaty for the Establishment of an Independent and Democratic Austria, signed in Vienna, 15 May 1955.[44]
  • Agreement between the Soviet Union and West Germany to establish dipomatic relations, 13 September 1955..=
  • Treaty of Friendship & Peace between the Federal Republic of West Germany and the Soviet Union, Moscow, 12 August 1970. Which included (article 3) an undertaking "to respect without reservation the territorial integrity of all States in Europe in their present frontiers", and that "they declare they have no territorial claims against anyone and will not raise such in the future".[45][46]

Outside Russia

The Soviet Union also supported Communist revolutionary cells and activities in many other countries, and during World War II conquered Eastern Europe, imposing Communist dictatorships and terror in those countries. The most notable "export" of its evil political ideology was to Red China.


The borders of the Soviet Union varied, due to the 1917 revolutions, the Russian Civil War, and World War II. Following The Great War Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland all gained their independence. In 1939 it recovered the territory it had lost to Poland in the Treaty of Riga.

The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 also saw many new states declare independence. However the largest one, Russia - or the Russian Federation, assumed the responsibilities and what they saw as the 'rights' of the old Soviet Union under international treaties, such as being a permanent member on the United Nations Security Council.


The Bolshevik Revolution and some of its aftermath represented, from one perspective, Jewish revenge. During the heyday of the Cold War, American Jewish publicists spent a lot of time denying that—as 1930s anti-Semites claimed—Jews played a disproportionately important role in Soviet and world Communism. The truth is until the early 1950s Jews did play such a role, and there is nothing to be ashamed of. In time Jews will learn to take pride in the record of the Jewish Communists in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. It was a species of striking back.
—Norman Cantor, The Jewish Experience, 1996.[47]
Under the revolutionary regimes of Lenin and the early Stalin the former majority population of Eastern Slavs (Russians, Ukrainians, White Russians) in their own country were dispossessed and put under the jurisdiction of the prerevolutionary minority peoples (Jews, Georgians, Latvians, Poles, and Armenians). The October Revolution differed substantially from earlier Western revolutions as, for example, when Frenchmen were pitted against Frenchmen in the French Revolution or when Englishmen fought against fellow Englishmen in the American Revolution for the purpose of improving conditions for the less fortunate. In Russia in 1917, international misfits provided much of the leadership for that revolution as part of a world conspiracy to bring down all other governments that did not accept the dictatorial teaching of Karl Marx and his disciples.
—Sergei Semanov, 2012, The Russian Club: Why the Jews Will Not Win.[48]

See also


  • Beloff, Max, The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia 1928-1941, Oxford University Press, London, 1947.
  • Graham, L. R., Science and Philosophy in the Soviet Union, Allen Lane pubs., London, 1973, ISBN: 0-7139-0628-6
  • Harasymiw, Bohdan, Political Recruitment in the Soviet Union, Macmillan Press, London, 1984, ISBN: 0-333-30075-0.
  • Heller, Mikhail, Cogs in the Soviet Wheel: The Formation of Soviet Man, Collins Harvill, London, 1988. ISBN: 0-00-272516-9.
  • Koch, Stephen, Double Lives - Stalin, Willi Munzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals, Harper Collins pubs., London, 1995, ISBN: 0-00-255516-6

External links



  1. Pryce-Jones, David, The War That Never Was: The Fall of the Soviet Empire 1985-1991, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1995, ISBN: 0-297-81320-X
  3. Andrew, Christopher, & Gordievsky, Oleg, The KGB: The Inside Story, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1990, ISBN: 0-340-48561-2.
  4. Dikotter, Frank, Mao's Great Famine, Bloomsbury Publishing plc., London, 2010, ISBN: 978-0-7475-9508-3
  5. Szinai, Miklos, & Szucs, Laszlo, editors, The Confidential Papers of Admiral Horthy, Corvina Press, Budapest, 1965, pps:54-58.
  6. Dyck, Harvey Leonard (Columbia University), Weimar Germany and Soviet Russia 1926-1933, Chatto & Windus, London, 1966, pps: 13 & 18-23.
  7. Wheeler-Bennett, John W., Brest-Litovsk: The Forgotten Peace, Macmillan, London & St. Martin's Press, New York, 1966.
  8. Grenville, Professor J. A. S., The Major International Treaties 1914-1973, Methuen & Co., Ltd., London, 1974, p.140. ISBN: 416-09070-2.
  9. Grenville, 1974, p.139.
  10. Grenville, 1974, p.156-9.
  11. Grenville, 1974, p.144-5.
  12. Grenville, 1974, p.149.
  13. Grenville, 1974, p.145-7.
  14. Grenville, 1974, p.148.
  15. Carr, Professor Edward Hallett, International Relations since the Peace Treaties MacMillan, London, 1937, revised 1940, 1941 and 1945, p.202.
  16. Grenville, 1974, p.152-4.
  17. Carr, 1945, p.204.
  18. Grenville, 1974, p.154-6.
  19. Grenville, 1974, pps: 160 & 185.
  20. Grenville, 1974, p.148.
  21. Grenville, 1974, p.194-5.
  22. Grenville, 1974, p.195-6.
  23. Grenville, 1974, p.199-200.
  24. Grenville, 1974, p.201.
  25. Grenville, 1974, p.200.
  26. Grenville, 1974, p.207.
  27. Grenville, 1974, p.211.
  28. Grenville, 1974, p.214-5.
  29. Grenville, 1974, p.206.
  30. Grenville, 1974, p.210.
  31. Grenville, 1974, p.212-214.
  32. Grenville, 1974, p.207.
  33. Grenville, 1974, p.215-6.
  34. Grenville, 1974, p/.207.
  35. Grenville, 1974, p.216-7.
  36. Grenville, 1974, p.361-3.
  37. Grenville, 1974, p.289.
  38. Grenville, 1974, pps: 31-236.
  39. Grenville, 1974, p.237=240.
  40. Grenville, 1974, p.364.
  41. Grenville, 1974, p.365.
  42. Grenville, 1974, p.292-3.
  43. Grenville, 1974, pps:365-367.
  44. Grenville, 1974, pps:281-283.
  45. Grenville, 1974, p.293-4.
  46. This was a socialist-Liberal coalition government with only a ten-seat majority, under SPD Chancellor Willy Brandt.
  47. Destroy Zionism! (23 December 2010). "Jewish author Norman Cantor brags about Bolshevik slaughter of Europeans". 
  48. NKVD: Excerpt from Sergei Semanov, The Russian Club. The Occidental Observer. Retrieved on 14 October 2013.