October Revolution

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October Revolution
Part of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Revolutions of 1917–23 and the Russian Civil War
Congress of Soviets (1917).jpg
Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which took power in the October Revolution
Date 7–8 November 1917
Location Petrograd, Russia
Result Bolshevik victory
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Bolshevik Party
Left SRs
Red Guards
2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets
Russian Republic (to November 7)
Russian Provisional Government (to November 8)
Commanders and leaders
Vladimir Lenin
Leon Trotsky
Pavel Dybenko
Russia Alexander Kerensky
10,000 red sailors, 20,000-30,000 red guard soldiers 500-1,000 volunteer soldiers, 1,000 soldiers of women's battalion
Casualties and losses
Few wounded red guard soldiers All deserted

The October Revolution (Russian: Октябрьская революция, Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya), is also known as the Bolshevik Revolution. It began with an armed insurrection or coup d'état in Saint Petersburg traditionally dated October 25, 1917 (Julian calendar; November 7 Gregorian calendar). It was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, following the February Revolution earlier that year.


The February Revolution was an almost spontaneous affair brought about by war-weariness, corruption, and starvation. It is said to have come as a surprise to Lenin, who was in Zurich at the time. Lenin returned to Russia in the infamous sealed train while others went by sea.

The October revolution was the Bolshevik seizure of power and destruction of democracy and the Russian Provisional Government. Their armed gangs attacked and occupied all strategic government buildings on October 24 & 25. The new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Civil War (1917–1922), the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922, and the massacre of millions followed.

Leading Bolsheviks of the October Revolution

Leading Bolshevik hierarchy members in 1917: Vladimir Lenin and the following were amongst those elected at the all-Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party (of which the Bolsheviks were a wing) Conference in April 1917 as the new Central Committee:

  • Lev Kamenev (Jewish; Trotsky’s brother-in-law)
  • Vladimir Milyutin, (People's Commissar for Agriculture in the first Bolshevik government).
  • Viktor Pavlovich Nogin (Jewish, Chairman of the Moscow Military-Revolutionary Committee.)
  • Ivan Smilga (Latvian, Chairman, Northern Regional Congress)
  • Josef Stalin (Georgian)
  • Jakob Sverdlov (Jewish; First Soviet President; authorised the murder of the Imperial Family)
  • Grigori Zinoviev (Jewish; President of Executive Committee of 3rd International)

Other leading Bolsheviks included:

  • Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Jewish; Member of the Central Committee & on editorial board of the Bolshevik newspaper Pravda. He was head of the Soviet delegation at Brest-Litovsk to negotiate an Armistice with the Central Powers.
  • Grigori Sokolnikov (Jewish, born Girsh Yankelevich. Member of the first Politburo and who signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918 on behalf of the Bolshevik government of Russia.)
  • Isaac Steinberg (Jewish, from Latvia; People's Commissar for Justice.)
  • Leon Trotsky (Jewish; Commissar for Foreign Affairs)
  • Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky (Jewish; elected onto the Bolshevik Central Committee in July 1917 and was made head of the Petrograd Cheka. In this position Uritsky coordinated the pursuit and prosecution of members of the nobility, military officers and ranking Russian Orthodox Church clerics who opposed the Bolsheviks. He was assassinated by another Jew on 17 August 1918.)
  • Ivan Maisky (Jewish, born Jan Lachowiecki) (joined the 1918 provincial government in Samara. In 1921, he officially joined the Bolshevik All-Russian Communist Party.)
  • Yuli Martov (Jewish,from Vilna, former editor of Iskra and Lenin's link man with the Jewish Bund.)
  • Maxim Litvinov (Jewish; real name: Meir Walach (Diplomat)
  • Karl Radek (Jewish; real name: Karl Sobelsohn from Lemberg and a staunch advocate of revolutionary warfare.)
  • Mikhail Kalinin (Bolshevik Chief of City of St. Petersburg)
  • Alexandra Kollantai (Finnish/Ukrainian, Commissar for Social Welfare)
  • Anatoli Lunacharsky (a Humanist, Commissar for Enlightenment)
  • Vlacheslav Molotov (real surname: Skryabin)(Commissar for Provinces)
  • Nicholai Podvoisky (Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet and one of the 'troika' who led the storming of the Winter Palace in October 1917. Immediately following he served as the first Commissar for the Defence of Russia.)
  • Yuri Mikhailovich Steklov(editor of Izvestiya and a member of the Bolshevik Central Committee.)
  • Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko (Ukrainian; Commissar for Military Affairs; arrested the Provisional Government.)
  • S. Ia. Bogdanov (Commissar of Proletarian Culture)
  • Felix Dzerzhinski (Polish Head of the Cheka)
  • Jakob Peters (Latvian Cheka Deputy)
  • Gleb Boki (Deputy Head of Petrograd Cheka)
  • Nikolai Bucharin (Theoretician. Lifelong friend of Ilya Ehrenburg a prominent member of Soviet-sponsored Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee and the originator of the holocaust-"Six Million" dead.)
  • Nikolai Chkheidze, (Georgian, President of the Petrograd Soviet).

Why Communism Came to Power in Russia

By 1917, most countries in Europe were either liberal democracies or monarchies, dominated by financial and commerical interests. Whereas other European nations had appeased the liberals, Russia had largely refused to accede to their demands. Liberals were irate and confused after having been stymied in Russia for so long notwithstanding their success almost everywhere else in Europe. They began to believe that perhaps the only way to achieve liberal democracy in Russia was to build up and then unleash this far-left beast upon Russian society, where it would first create mass social upheaval, but would eventually be contained, and a liberal democratic republic would emerge once the dust had settled. They began openly plotting with nihilists, the far-Left, and Russophobic elements and threw their much larger resources into the far-left Bolsheviks' meager pool of resources. Thus the Bolsheviks ("bolshevik" means "majority") were able to become a major force in Russia even though they were dominated by Jewish revolutionaries and initially supported by only a tiny number of Russia's population.

Although the Bolsheviks later destroyed the liberal Provisional Government, replacing it with their own, the liberals' plan had partially succeeded at the beginning of the reforms in 1905. The Bolsheviks certainly caused massive social upheaval and took 74 years to burn itself out. Once it was gone, it was gone for good, and a democratic republic was declared immediately thereafter under Boris Yeltsin, which has remained in power to this very day.

From another point of view, however, the liberal plan failed. For it can certainly be argued that the three main European successor-states of the USSR and Russian Empire: Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, are liberal democracies in name only. (This is certainly true of Belarus.) This is in fact the view of both the liberal media and the liberal governments in the EU, US, and UN, who have consistently placed these three nations on their various "naughty lists" of "illiberal" and "undemocratic" regimes.[1] [2]


The Bolshevik Revolution and some of its aftermath represented, from one perspective, Jewish revenge. During the heyday of the Cold War, American Jewish publicists spent a lot of time denying that—as 1930s anti-Semites claimed—Jews played a disproportionately important role in Soviet and world Communism. The truth is until the early 1950s Jews did play such a role, and there is nothing to be ashamed of. In time Jews will learn to take pride in the record of the Jewish Communists in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. It was a species of striking back.

Norman Cantor, The Jewish Experience, 1996.[3]


  • Carr, Edward Hallett, The Bolshevik Revolution 1917 - 1923, London, 1950.
  • Figes, Orlando, A People's Tragedy - The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London, 1996, ISBN 0-224-04162-2

External link