August von Mackensen

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August von Mackensen
August von Mackensen koloriert.jpg
Generalfeldmarschall Dr. h. c. mult. August von Mackensen with the Achselschnur of a Generaladjutant
Birth name Anton Ludwig Friedrich August Mackensen
Nickname The last Hussar
(Der letzte Husar)
Birth date 6 December 1849(1849-12-06)
Place of birth Haus Leipnitz, Province of Saxony, Kingdom of Prussia, German Confederation
Death date 8 November 1945 (aged 95)
Place of death Burghorn, Habighorst, Province of Hanover, Allied-occupied Germany[1]
Allegiance Germany Prussian Eagle.jpg Kingdom of Prussia
Coat of arms of North German Confederation.png North German Confederation
 German Empire
 Weimar Republic
Service/branch War and service flag of Prussia (1895–1918).png Prussian Army
Iron Cross of the Luftstreitkräfte.png Imperial German Army
War Ensign of the Reichswehr, 1919 - 1935.png Reichswehr
Years of service 1869–1920
Rank Generalfeldmarschall
Commands held Army Group Mackensen
Battles/wars Franco-Prussian War
World War I
Awards Grand Cross of the Iron Cross
Pour le Mérite with Oak Leaves
Order of the Black Eagle
Relations ∞ 1879 Dorothea "Doris" von Horn

Anton Ludwig Friedrich August Mackensen, since 1899 von Mackensen (6 December 1849 – 8 November 1945), was a German cavalry officer, finally Generalfeldmarschall. He commanded successfully during World War I (1914–1918) and became one of the German Empire's most prominent and competent military leaders. After the armistice of 11 November 1918, the Allies interned von Mackensen in Serbia for a year. On 24 January 1920, he retired from the provisional Reichswehr.

In 1898, he co-founded the German Society for Military Studies (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e. V.) and became its honorary chairman. Of the Field Marshals who served in the German Army during the First World War, only Rupprecht von Bayern (de), who died 1955, survived him.

Career (chronology)

Young school student August Mackensen
Hauptmann im Großen Generalstab August Mackensen, 1883
Grandson Richard, son of Eberhard, and his beloved wife Margot died only three weeks apart.
August Mackensen, c. 1894
General der Kavallerie August von Mackensen with the Totenkopf felt hat of the German hussars
August von Mackensen with Pickelhaube
August von Mackensen and Rupprecht Kronprinz von Bayern
Generalfeldmarschall von Mackensen and Generalleutnant Otto Hermann Theodor von der Decken during the "1st Weapons Day of the German Cavalry" in Dresden in September 1931
August von Mackensen at a memorial for the 20th Anniversary of the Battle of Tannenberg in 1934
Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler receives Generalfeldmarschall von Mackensen in 1935
Commemorating Generalfeldmarschall August von Mackensen in the 21st century
GFM von Mackensen.png
  • 1859 to 1865 Student at the Real-Gymnasium in Torgau
  • 1865 to 1868 Student at the "Franckesche Stiftungen" in Halle a. d. Saale
  • 1868 At the request of the father, a significant landowner, August quit school and became an apprentice on his father's large farm (landwirtschaftliche Lehre, "Practicum").
    • At the same time, he applied as a career officer, but was refused due to his "weak constitution".
  • 1 October 1869 One-year volunteer (Einjährig-Freiwilliger) in the 2. Leib-Husaren-Regiment „Königin Viktoria von Preußen“ Nr. 2 (the "Black Hussars") in Lissa
    • When, as for all Prussians, the time for his compulsory military service approached, he was accepted as a one-year volunteer and became Private 1st Class of the Reserve (Gefreiter der Reserve) after six months
  • 1870/1871 With his "Black Hussars" he took part in the Franco-German War, distinguished himself in many battles and often volunteered for dangerous patrols behind enemy lines. He was promoted to Vize-Wachtmeister, was was entrusted with the duties of an officer and promoted to 2nd Lieutenant of the Reserves in December 1870 and was named orderly officer of Friedrich Heinrich Albrecht Prinz von Preußen, commander of the 4. Kavallerie-Division.
  • 24 June 1871 (other sources state October 1871) After the war and leaving the army, Mackensen, once again at the father's request, he began his studies ("Ackerstudent") of agricultural science (Agrarwissenschaft) at the Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle an der Saale. At the same time, without letting his parents know, he also studied military science (Heereskunde), still wishing to be a career officer.
    • 1871 Member of the fraternity “Akademisch Landwirtschaftlicher Verein (ALV)“ in Halle (Academic Agricultural Association); In October 1919, reorganised as "Akademisch-Landwirtschaftlicher Verbindung Agronomia Halle" and renamed "Corps Agronomia Halle" on 23 October 1925. He was therefore a member of (a later duel fencing) student's fraternity in Halle with neckband and cap in the couloring "white-black-white".
  • 15 April 1873 Mackensen, after receiving his father's permission in March 1873, breaks off his studies and joins the active military service of the Prussian army as a second lieutenant. He initially serves in his old unit, the Leibhussaren-Regiment No. 2. His younger brother Viktor was now working with their father.
  • 17 October 1876 Adjutant of the 1. Kavallerie-Brigade in Königsberg
  • 13 May 1880 Detached for duty from his regiment to the Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab) in Berlin
    • as of 1882 officially transferred
  • 19 February 1884 Transferred to the VII. Armeekorps in Münster (on Friedrich von Witzendorff's general staff)
  • 29 December 1885 Transferred to the 14. Infanterie-Division in Düsseldorf (on general staff)
  • 20 September 1887 Squadron commander (Eskadron-Chef) in the Dragoner-Regiment "König Karl I von Rumänien" (1. Hannoversches ) Nr. 9 - Metz (Squadron Chief)
  • 18 October 1888 On the general staff of the 4. Infanterie-Division in Bromberg, at the same time with the Großer Generalstab])
  • 21 February 1891 1. Adjutant to Prussian Chief of General Staff Alfred von Schlieffen (de) in the Generalstab der Armee in Berlin
  • 17 June 1893 to 26 January 1898 Commander of the 1. Leib-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 1 in Danzig (Langfuhr)
    • until 26 January 1894 delegated with the leadership (mit der Führung beauftragt), as of 27 January 1894 officially commander
  • 12 September 1895 At the same time appointed Flügeladjutant (Wing Adjutant) S.M. des Kaisers und Königs
  • 27 January 1898 Diensttuender Flügeladjutant S.M. des Kaisers und Königs (Active Serving Wing Adjutant or Orderly aide-de-camp in HM Kaiser Wilhelm II's court)
    • 27 January 1899 On the occasion of the Emperor's 40th birthday, Mackensen was ennobled (raised to the nobility).
  • 18 April 1900 Diensttuender General à la suite S.M. des Kaisers und Königs (Active Serving Orderly General à la suite in HM Kaiser Wilhelm II's court)
  • 14 September 1901 Commander of the Leib-Husaren-Brigade in Danzig
  • 11 September 1903 Commander of the 36. Infanterie-Division in Danzig
  • 11 September 1903 Generaladjutant S.M. des Kaisers und Königs (Adjutant General in HM Kaiser Wilhelm II's court)
  • 27 January 1908 Commanding General of the XVII. Armeekorps in Danzig
  • 2 August 1914 Generaladjutant S.M. des Kaisers und Königs (Adjutant General in HM Kaiser Wilhelm II's court)
  • 2 August 1914 On mobilization for WWI, the Corps was restructured. The Leib Hussar Brigade was withdrawn to form part of the 2nd Cavalry Division and the 35th Cavalry Brigade was broken up and its regiments assigned to the divisions as reconnaissance units. Divisions received engineer companies and other support units from the Corps headquarters. In summary, XVII Corps mobilised with 25 infantry battalions, 9 machine gun companies (54 machine guns), 8 cavalry squadrons, 24 field artillery batteries (144 guns), 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 guns), 3 pioneer companies and an aviation detachment of the Fliegertruppe. The subordinate 35th Infantry Division was led by Lieutenant General Hennig and the 36th Infantry Division was under the command of Lieutenant General von Heineccius. On mobilisation, XVII Corps was assigned to the 8th Army (General von Prittwitz-Gaffron) to defend East Prussia, while the rest of the Army executed the Schlieffen Plan offensive in August 1914. It took part in the battles of Gumbinnen, Tannenberg and 1st Masurian Lakes. Immediately after the latter, it joined the 9th Army in Lower Silesia, where it fought at the Battle of the Vistula River.
  • 1 November 1914 Commander-in-chief of the 9. Armee (replaced Paul von Hindenburg)
  • 16 April 1915 Commander-in-chief of the 11. Armee (replaced Max von Fabeck)
  • 6 July 1915 Heeresgruppe Mackensen-Südpolen (Southern Poland; simultaneously commanded 11. Armee)
  • 18 September 1915 Heeresgruppe Mackensen-Serbien (Balkans) with German, Austrian, Bulgarian and Ottoman troops
  • 28 August 1916 Heeresgruppe Mackensen-Rumänien (Romania)
  • 1 July 1918 Commander-in-chief of the German Occupation Forces in Romania (Besatzungsheer Rumänien)

Post-WWI

  • December 1939 Von Mackensen's 90th birthday is celebrated as a state ceremony
  • June 1941 Von Mackensen attended the funeral of Kaiser Wilhelm II in Doorn as a guest of honour
  • February 1945 Fleeing from the Red Army, von Mackensen traveled from Brüssow to Burghorn, where he was taken prisoner by the British in April 1945.

Death

Generalfeldmarschall Dr. h. c. mult. August von Mackensen died on 8 November 1945 of malnutrition in a British "concentration camp" near Celle before he could be tried as a "war criminal". His grave is in the city cemetery in Celle. The British occupiers had banned any tribute or honour to the deceased by family or others.

Family

Marriage

On 21 November 1879, Premierleutnant Mackensen married in Königsberg his fiancée Dorothea „Doris“ Mathilde Eugenie Rudolfine von Horn (1854–1905), the sister of his 1870 near Dannemoir fallen comrade (Georg Ludwig Karl Eduard Eugen von Horn) and daughter of Karl Wilhelm Georg Heinrich von Horn (1807–1889), the influential Oberpräsident of East Prussia. They had five children:

  • Else Dorothea Marie (1881–1888)
  • Hans Georg Viktor (1883–1947), Secretary of State, Ambassador and honorary SS-Gruppenführer
  • Karl Ludwig Manfred (1886–1947), Dr. jur., government assessor and finally Ministerialrat; ∞ 9 June 1931 Marie-Luise Henriette Margarete von Ploetz
  • Friedrich August Eberhard (1889–1969), Generaloberst of the Wehrmacht in WWII; ∞ 9 December 1919 Margarete Amanda Mackensen (1895–1989)
    • Rittmeister Richard von Mackensen (b. 1 October 1920 in Neustettin; d. 28 June 2012 in Jevensted), company commander in the Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 12, later farmer and landowner
    • Oberleutnant der Luftwaffe August-Viktor Klaus von Mackensen (b. 14 February 1923; d. 27 February 2010), Aufklärungsgruppe 1 (DKiG), later book merchant in Wuppertal
  • Charlotte Irene Ruth (1897–1945), parish clerk
    • Charlotte von Mackensen lived in Zellin, Upper Silesia. She was expelled from there and died in Bad Freienwalde. The circumstances of her death are unclear. Contemporary witnesses want to know that she was raped to death by the Russians, others that she chose suicide on 1 December 1945 out of shame at the desecration.

In 1908, the widower married in Groß-Jannewitz, Kreis Lauenburg in Pommern Leonie Luise Thusnelda Helene von der Osten (1878–1963), daughter of Prussian Major and land owner (Rittergutsbesitzer) Leopold Julius Felix Graf von der Osten (Graf since 22 March 1897). This marriage remained childless and lasted until his death in 1945.

Promotions

  • Einjährig-Freiwilliger (1869)
  • Vizewachtmeister (September 1870)
    • He wrote to his mother on 12 September 1870: I forgot to write to you last night that as a result of the battle at Danemois I received the Portepee and was appointed officer on duty (German: Offizier-Diensttuender). I now have the recently introduced title of Deputy Sergeant (German: Vize-Wachtmeister).[2]
  • Sekondeleutnant der Reserve (12.12.1870 with effect from 3.12.1870)
  • Premierleutnant (9.7.1878)
  • Rittmeister (21.9.1882)
  • Major (15.10.1888)
  • Oberstleutnant (27.1.1894)
  • Oberst (22.3.1897)
    • as Diensttuender Flügeladjutant he also received the rank as Brigadekommandeur (Brigade Commander)
  • Generalmajor (18.4.1900)
  • Generalleutnant (11.9.1903)
  • General der Kavallerie (27.1.1908)
  • Generaloberst (17.12.1914)
  • Generalfeldmarschall (22.6.1915)

Awards, decorations and honours

Awards and decorations

  • Iron Cross (1870), 2nd Class
    • for the voluntary leadership of a patrol behind enemy lines at Toury near Orléans on 5 October 1870 on behalf of Friedrich Heinrich Albrecht Prinz von Preußen, commander of the 4. Kavallerie-Division
  • War Commemorative Medal of 1870–1871 (Kaiserliche Kriegsdenkmünze 1870/71) with seven battle clasps ( „Wörth“, „Loigny-Poupry“, „Le Mans“, „Beaugency-Cravant“, „Sedan“, „Orléans“ and „Beaumont“)
  • Hesse Order of Merit of Philip the Magnanimous (Verdienstorden Philipps des Großmütigen), Knight 2nd Class (GHVP3b/HP3b) as of (and only, therefore possibly misprint) Rangliste 1883 (p. 22)
  • Lippe House Order (Fürstlich Lippischer Hausorden), Cross of Honour 3rd Class (LH.EK3/LH3)
  • Red Eagle Order (Roter Adlerorden), 4th Class
  • Prussian Order of the Crown (Preußischer Kronenorden), 3rd Class
  • Bavarian Military Merit Order, Commander's Cross (BMV2b)
  • Franz-Joseph-Orden, Commander (ÖFJ2)
  • Order of Henry the Lion (Herzoglich Braunschweigischer Orden Heinrichs des Löwen), Knight's Cross 1st Class (BrHL3a/BrH3a) in June 1893
  • Saxon Albrechts-Orden, Officer's Cross (SA3) in August 1893
  • Anniversary Oak Leaves (Jubiläums-Eichenlaub „25“ 1870/1895) to the Iron Cross 2nd Class
  • Prussian Long Service Cross for 25 years (Königlich Preußisches Dienstauszeichnungskreuz; DA)
  • Prussian Centenary Medal 1897 (Zentenarmedaille)
  • Jerusalemkreuz 1898
  • Red Eagle Order, 3rd Class with the Bow and Crown in September 1898
  • Schaumburg Lippe House Order, Cross of Honour 2nd Class (SLH.EK2/SLH2) in February 1899
  • Ottoman Osmanie-Orden (Osmanije), 2nd Class (TO2)
  • Albrechts-Orden of Saxony, Commander (Komtur) 2nd Class (SA2b) in March 1899
  • Prussian Order of the Crown, 2nd Class in September 1899
  • Orden vom Zähringer Löwen, Commander 2nd Class with Oak Leaves (BZL2bmE/BZ2bmE)
  • Hesse Order of Merit of Philip the Magnanimous (Verdienstorden Philipps des Großmütigen), Commander 2nd Class (GHVP2b/HP2b)
  • Order of Henry the Lion (Herzoglich Braunschweigischer Orden Heinrichs des Löwen), Commander's Cross 1st Class (BrHL2a/BrH2a) in November 1899
  • Schaumburg Lippe House Order, Cross of Honour 1st Class (SLH.EK1/SLH1)
  • Württemberg Order of the Crown, Commander / Kommenturkreuz (WK2b)
  • Russian Order of Saint Stanislaus, 2nd Class with Star (RSt2mSt)
  • Albrechts-Orden of Saxony, Commander (Komtur), 1st Class (SA2a) in June 1900
  • Franz-Joseph-Orden, Grand Cross (ÖFJ1)
  • Red Eagle Order, 2nd Class with Oak Leaves and the Crown on 18 January 1901
  • Bavarian Military Merit Order, Grand Commander (BMV2a) in April 1901
    • since ranking list 1906 renamed Military Merit Order II. Class with Star (BMV2mSt)
  • Order of the White Falcon (Hausorden vom Weißen Falken), Commander's Cross with Star (GSF2mSt) in June 1901
  • Mecklenburg Order of the Griffon (Großherzoglich Mecklenburgischer Greifenorden), Grand Commander's Cross (MGrO2a/MG2a)
  • Ottoman Medschidie-Orden (Medjidie-Orden), 1st Class (TM1)
  • Prussian House Order of Hohenzollern, Commander's Cross (HOH2b) in September 1901
  • Star to his Prussian Order of the Crown, 2nd Class in August 1902
  • Russian Order of Saint Stanislaus, 1st Class (RSt1)
  • Russian Order of Saint Anna, I. Class (RA1) in December 1903
  • Star to his Red Eagle Order, 2nd Class with Oak Leaves and the Crown (RAO2mKr.uSt) in June 1904
  • Prussian Order of the Crown, 1st Class on 27 January 1906
  • Erinnerungszeichen zur Silbernen Hochzeit 1906
  • Red Eagle Order, 1st Class with Oak Leaves and the Crown on 27 January 1908
  • Red Eagle Order, Grand Cross with Oak Leaves and the Crown on 27 January 1910
  • Oldenburg House and Merit Order of Duke Peter Frederick Louis (Oldenburgischer Haus- und Verdienstorden des Herzogs Peter Friedrich Ludwig), Grand Cross of Honour (Ehren-Großkreuz) in August 1910 (OV1)
  • Star (Stern der Komture) to his Prussian House Order of Hohenzollern, Commander's Cross (HOH2a) on 10 September 1910
  • Württemberg Order of the Crown, Grand Cross (WK1) in November 1910
  • Bavarian Military Merit Order, Grand Cross (BMV.G.Kr) in April 1912
  • Grand Cross of the Saxon Albert Order (Albrechts-Orden) with the Golden Star (SA1mgSt) in June 1912

WWI

  • Iron Cross (1914), 2nd and 1st Class
    • 2nd Class repetition clasp (1914) to the EK II (1870)
    • 1st Class on 17 September 1914 for the Battle of Tannenberg
  • Pour le Mérite with Oak Leaves
    • Pour le Mérite on 27 November 1914
    • Oak Leaves on 3 June 1915 for the breakthrough battle near Gorlice-Tarnów and the reconquest of Przemysl
  • Austrian-Hungarian Imperial Order of Leopold, Grand Cross with the War Decoration (ÖL1K) in 1914
  • Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Grand Cross with Swords (HSEH1⚔/HSH1⚔) on 27 January 1915
  • Princely Waldeck Cross of Merit (Fürstlich Waldeckisches Verdienstkreuz), 1st Class with Swords (WVK1⚔) on 30 March 1915
  • Swords to his Bavarian Military Merit Order, Grand Cross (BMV.G.Kr⚔) on 31 March 1915
  • Swords to his Württemberg Order of the Crown, Grand Cross (WK1⚔) on 19 April 1915
  • Austria-Hungary Military Merit Cross, 1st Class with the War Decoration (ÖMV1mKD/ÖM1K) on 6 May 1915
  • Prussian House Order of Hohenzollern, Grand Commander's Cross with Swords (HOH1b⚔) and Star with Swords (Stern der Großkomture; HOH1a⚔) on 10 May (or 29 May) 1915
  • Bavarian Military Order of Max Joseph, Grand Cross (BMJ1) on 3 June 1915
  • Black Eagle Order (SAO) on 28 August 1915 for the Vistula-Bug offensive (Brest-Litowsk)
  • Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Grand Cross (ÖSt1/USt1) on 24/25 September 1915
  • Diamonds (Brillanten) to his Austria-Hungary Military Merit Cross, 1st Class with the War Decoration (ÖM1K.Br) on 28 November 1915
  • Ottoman Osmanie-Orden (Osmanije), 1st Class (TO1) on 3 December 1915
  • Saxon Military Order of St. Henry, Knight's Cross (SH3) and Commander 1st Class (SH2a) on 6 December 1915
  • Swords to his Grand Cross of the Saxon Albert Order with the Golden Star (SA1mgSt⚔) on 15 December 1915
  • Saxon Order of the White Falcon (Hausorden vom Weißen Falken), Grand Cross with Swords (GSF1⚔) in 1915
  • Bulgarian Order of Bravery (Militärorden für Tapferkeit), 1st Class (BT1) on 18 January 1916
  • Star with Diamonds to his Ottoman Osmanie-Orden (Osmanije), 1st Class (TO1mStuBr) on 24 March 1916
  • Princely House Order of Hohenzollern (Fürstlich Hohenzollern'sches Ehrenzeichen), Cross of Honour 1st Class with Swords (HEK1⚔) on 22 November 1916
  • Picture of the Austrian Emperor in a gold frame with the monogram of Emperor Karl I for his after the capture of Bucharest on 6 December 1916 (Otto von Below received his in 1918)
  • Ottoman Istechar-Orden (Order of Glory) with Diamonds (TNJmBr) on 31 December 1916
  • Grand Cross of the Iron Cross on 9/11 January 1917
  • Carl Eduard War Cross of Saxon-Coburg and Gotha (CK) on 26 April 1917
  • Military Order of Maria Theresa, Grand Cross (ÖMT1) on 26 March 1918
Date unknown
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin Military Merit Cross (Großherzoglich Mecklenburg-Schwerinsches Militärverdienstkreuz), 2nd and 1st Class (MMV1/MK1)
  • Bremen Hanseatic Cross (Bremisches Hanseatenkreuz; BremH/BH)
  • Lübeck Hanseatic Cross (Lübeckisches Hanseatenkreuz; LübH/LüH)
  • Hamburg Hanseatic Cross (Hamburgisches Hanseatenkreuz; HH)
  • Princely Reuss Cross of Honor (Fürstlich Reußisches Ehrenkreuz), 1st Class with the Crown and Swords (REKj1mKr⚔)
  • Swords to his Oldenburg House and Merit Order of Duke Peter Frederick Louis, Grand Cross of Honour (OV1⚔)
  • Swords to his Red Eagle Order, Grand Cross with Oak Leaves and the Crown
  • Bulgarian Order of Saint Alexander, Grand Cross with Diamonds and Swords (BA1mBr⚔)
  • Bulgarian Order of Military Merit, Grand Cross with the War Decoration
  • Gallipoli Star (Eiserner Halbmond; TH)

Post-WWI

Honours

  • Raised to the nobility on 27 January 1899
  • In 1911, Mackensen was allowed to wear the uniform of the 1. Leib-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 1 for life. This was a special award. This uniform would later become his trademark.
  • On 27 April 1915, he was appointed Chef of the Infanterie-Regiment „Generalfeldmarschall von Mackensen“ (3. Westpreußisches) Nr. 129, which was named after him.
  • The paddle steamer "Stadt Wehlen", which was only completed in 1925, was laid down in 1916 in the Laubegast shipyard under the name "Generalfeldmarschall von Mackensen".
  • SMS „Mackensen“ (Mackensen-class battlecruiser), launched on 17 April 1917, but not completed
    • All seven planned ships of the new Mackensen-class were never completed to to the end of the war, four were cancelled.
  • Honorary Senator of the University of Greifswald
  • Canon (Domherr) of Merseburg
  • Chancellor (Kanzler) of the Order of the Black eagle on 21 January 1921
  • Domain Brüssow, Gift from Adolf Hitler in 1935
  • Chef h. c. of the Kavallerie-Regiment 5
    • The 5th Cavalry Regiment of the Wehrmacht wore the Totenkopf of the hussars (Husaren) on their peaked caps.
  • Supreme Patron of the Maria Theresa Order on 25 October 1939

Cities, towns and streets

  • In 1915, the newly formed rural community Mackensen in Pomerania was named after him.
  • Mackensen was an honorary citizen of numerous cities, e.g. Danzig, Pforzheim, Swinemünde, Heilsberg, Bütow and Tirnowo
  • Streets in various cities, among them Berlin, were named after him.
  • The square in front of the Düsseldorf police headquarters was named after him in 1937.

Honorary doctorates

  • Dr. e. h. of political science from the University of Budapest
  • Dr. sc. pol. h. c. of political science of the University of Halle-Wittenberg
  • Honorary doctorate from the Vienna University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (Hochschule für Bodenkultur Wien)
  • Dr.-Ing. e. h. of the Technical University of Danzig

Gallery

Medals

Writings

  • Das Leibhussaren-Regiment Nr. 2 im Kriege gegen Frankreich, 1877
  • Schwarze Husaren. Geschichte der Leib-Husaren, Berlin 1892, 2 Volumes

Further reading

  • Wolfgang Foerster (Hg.): Briefe und Aufzeichnungen des Generalfeldmarschalls aus Krieg und Frieden, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1938

External links

References

  1. David T. Zabecki, Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History, p. 808
  2. K. Thoring: Die Mutter des Feldmarschalls von Mackensen, 1916, p. 66