The European race formed from proto-European peoples migrating into the western landmass of Eurasia; they later were isolated from other races by natural barriers such as the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the Ural Mountains. This isolation created a distinct genetic group inside Europe.
The Europeans (Whites) are a major race. They are the indigenous peoples of Europe and also have descendants living around the world, including in the Americas, Oceania, Siberia and South Africa. The European peoples are known for the creating the civilisations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome as well as for creating most of the known scientific and technological advances.
Terms such as Caucasoids or Caucasians are sometimes used as synonyms for Europeans.
Genetic studies have found evidence for three ancestral populations of present day Europeans: ancient European hunter-gatherers, early European farmer (who migrated from the origin of agriculture in the Near East around 10,000 years ago), and ancient north Eurasians (who started migrating around 5,000 years ago).
The ancient north Eurasians may be the group who according to the Kurgan hypothesis lived in the Russian steppe, spoke the first Indo-European language, and who caused the spread of many new technologies and new cultural/religious institutions over Europe.
A minority view is that it was the early European farmer who spread the Indo-European languages.
Aryan is a term that early Indo-European speakers used to designate themselves.
That Europeans thousands of years ago had ancestors from somewhat different groups (but still related West Eurasian groups) has sometimes been argued to be an argument against Europeans being a race. Regarding this, see Race: Mixed race groups.
"Coon, Garn, and Birdsell (1950), Cole (1965), and a number of other anthropologists have sub-divided the Europeans into seven sub-races consisting of the
- Mediterranean peoples of Spain, Italy, and southeast Europe;
- the Alpine peoples of France and central and southern Germany;
- the Nordic peoples of England, the east of Ireland, and Scotland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Northern Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Western Finland;
- the Celtic peoples of Wales, the west of Ireland, and the western highlands of Scotland;
- the Dinaric peoples of east-central Europe;
- the Slavic peoples of northern Poland, the Baltic states, and Russia west of the Urals; and the
- Basques of northern Spain and southwest France."
Several diagrams showing different levels of genetic structure. The top left diagram shows Europeans forming a cluster clearly distinct from Han Chinese from Beijing (CHB), Japanese from Tokyo (JPT), and Yoruba from Nigeria (YRI). American Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe (CEU) form a cluster within the Europeans. The bottom left diagram shows clusters within the European cluster.
Diagram from a 2006 study showing the result of a factor analysis of genetic data from Maya Amerindians, Italians, Spaniards, Swedes, and three different groups of European Americans (of Western, Central, and Eastern European descent) according to a 2006 study. The Maya Amerindians are clearly distinct from the Europeans. The Maya Amerindians have been stated to have some European admixture. This likely means that the difference between Europeans and Amerindians was even larger before this admixture.
A principal component analysis plot of West Eurasians. A significant genetic discontinuity is observed between Greeks and Turks and more generally there is genetic discontinuity between Europeans and West Asians which support the existence of a distinct European race. Ashkenazi Jews are between the European and West Asian clusters (likely partly due to miscegenation) and other groups of Jews are more towards the West Asian side.
- "The greatest and most beautiful things of this Earth have been made by White people. We should love ourselves. We should love the Life Force that moves in us, and has made us what we are — a unique life stream like no other, and with a destiny that is ours alone. [...] Love Your Race. Everything depends on it. And nothing else matters." – Kevin Alfred Strom, in: Love Your Race, 2015
Europeans are discussed in many different articles on many different topics in Metapedia. Some examples are in many of the articles listed in:
- More genetic maps of Europe
- European population substructure
- The Genetic Map of Europe
- A genetic map of West Eurasians
- Really fine grained genetic maps of Europe
- Lazaridis I, Patterson N, Mittnik A, Renaud G, Mallick S, Kirsanow K et al. (2014) Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513 (7518):409-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13673 http://pubmed.gov/25230663
- Fernández E, Pérez-Pérez A, Gamba C, Prats E, Cuesta P, et al. (2014) Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands. PLoS Genet 10(6): e1004401. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401. http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401
- The past is another country http://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/search/label/neolithichttp://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/2015/08/the-past-is-another-country.html
- Replacement or continuity? http://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/2014/02/replacement-or-continuity.html
- Were native Europeans replaced? http://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/2011/12/were-native-europeans-replaced.html
- Bouckaert R, Lemey P, Dunn M, Greenhill SJ, Alekseyenko AV, Drummond AJ et al., (2012) Mapping the origins and expansion of the Indo-European language family in Science 337 (6097):957-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1219669 http://pubmed.gov/22923579
- Lynn, Richard. (2006). Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.
- Nelis M, Esko T, Mägi R, Zimprich F, Zimprich A, Toncheva D, et al. (2009) Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North–East. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5472. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005472 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0005472
- Seldin MF, Shigeta R, Villoslada P, Selmi C, Tuomilehto J, et al. (2006) European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations. PLoS Genet 2(9): e143. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020143 http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.0020143
- Pickrell JK, Pritchard JK (2012) Inference of Population Splits and Mixtures from Genome-Wide Allele Frequency Data. PLoS Genet 8(11): e1002967. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002967 http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002967