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Miscegenation is a term referring to sexual relations, and related aspects such as marriage and offspring, between individuals of different races. Contemporary usage of the term is less frequent than it once was, and the term is sometimes considered to be politically incorrect. Similar terms include "race mixing" and "interracial".



Miscegenation comes from the Latin miscere, "to mix" and genus, "kind, race". It dates to 1863.[1]

Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro was the name of a propaganda pamphlet printed in New York City in December of 1863, and the first known instance of the word's use. The pamphlet purported to be in favor of promoting the intermarriage of whites and blacks until they were indistinguishably mixed, claiming this was the goal of the Republican Party. The pamphlet was revealed to be written by anti-Lincoln Northern Democrats ("Copperheads") to discredit the Republicans, the Lincoln administration, and the abolitionist movement. Some radical elements of the abolitionist movement did in fact did support the goals of the pamphlet, but it was largely because miscegenation was so repulsive to the common man that this propaganda was effective.

Racial status of mixed race persons/populations

It is today possible to genetically test mixed race individuals/groups and objectively determine the different racial ancestries and how much each racial ancestry contributes. The map shows the proportions of African, Amerindian, and European racial ancestry in various populations in Latin America according to a 2012 study.[2]
See: Race: Mixed groups

Effects of race mixing

Main article: Effects of race mixing‎

Media depiction

Today the politically correct media in Western countries give overwhelmingly positive descriptions of miscegenation and typically never mention the negative effects of race mixing described above.

Opposition in Israel

See Israel: Mixed Marriages.

Anti-Miscegenation Laws in the United States

In North America, laws against interracial marriage and interracial sex were enforced in the Thirteen Colonies from the late seventeenth century onwards, and subsequently in many U.S. states and territories until 1967, when Loving v. Virginia overturned the laws. Catholics and the NAACP played a part in overturning these laws.[3] [1]

Anti-Miscegenation Laws Repealed By 1887

State First law passed Law repealed Races banned from marrying Whites Note
Illinois 1829 1874 Blacks
Iowa 1839 1851 Blacks
Kansas 1855 1859 Blacks Law repealed before reaching statehood
New Mexico 1857 1866 Blacks Law repealed before reaching statehood
Maine 1821 1883 Blacks, Native Americans
Massachusetts 1705 1843 Blacks, Native Americans Passed the 1913 law preventing out-of-state couples from circumventing their home-state anti-miscegenation laws
Michigan 1838 1883 Blacks
Ohio 1861 1887 Blacks Last state to repeal its anti-miscegenation law before California did so in 1948
Pennsylvania 1725 1780 Blacks
Washington 1855 1868 Blacks, Native Americans Law repealed before reaching statehood

Anti-Miscegenation Laws Repealed 1948-1967

State First law passed Law repealed Races banned from marrying Whites Note
Arizona 1865 1962 Blacks, Asians, Filipinos, Indians Filipinos ("Malays") and Indians ("Hindus") added to list of "races" in 1931
California 1850 1948 Blacks, Asians, Filipinos Anti-miscegenation law overturned by state judiciary in Supreme Court of California case Perez v. Sharp
Colorado 1864 1957 Blacks
Idaho 1864 1959 Blacks, Native Americans, Asians
Indiana 1818 1965 Blacks
Maryland 1692 1967 Blacks, Filipinos Repealed its law in response to the start of the Loving v. Virginia case
Montana 1909 1953 Blacks, Asians
Nebraska 1855 1963 Blacks, Asians
Nevada 1861 1959 Blacks, Native Americans, Asians, Filipinos
North Dakota 1909 1955 Blacks
Oregon 1862 1951 Blacks, Native Americans, Asians, Native Hawaiians
South Dakota 1909 1957 Blacks, Asians, Filipinos
Utah 1852 1963 Blacks, Asians, Filipinos
Wyoming 1913 1965 Blacks, Asians, Filipinos

Anti-Miscegenation Laws Overturned by Federal mandate on 12 June 1967 by Loving v. Virginia

State First law passed "Races" banned from marrying whites Note
Alabama 1822 Blacks Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated
Arkansas 1838 Blacks Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated
Delaware 1721 Blacks
Florida 1832 Blacks Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated
Georgia 1750 All non-whites
Kentucky 1792 Blacks
Louisiana 1724 Blacks Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated
Mississippi 1822 Blacks, Asians Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated
Missouri 1835 Blacks, Asians
North Carolina 1715 Blacks, Native Americans
Oklahoma 1897 Blacks
South Carolina 1717 All non-whites Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated
Tennessee 1741 Blacks, Native Americans
Texas 1837 Blacks
Virginia 1691 All non-whites Previous anti-miscegenation law made more severe by Racial Integrity Act of 1924
West Virginia 1863 Blacks

Proposed Anti-Miscegenation Amendments to the U.S. Constitution

At least three proposed Constitutional amendments to bar interracial marriage have been introduced before the U.S. Congress.[4]

  • In 1871, Representative Andrew King, a Democrat of Missouri, was the first politician to propose banning interracial marriage nation-wide. King proposed this amendment because he feared that the Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868 to give ex-slaves citizenship (the Freedmen) as part of the process of Reconstruction, would someday render laws against interracial marriage "unconstitutional". He was correct, as the case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967 demonstrated.
  • In December 1912 and January 1913, Representative Seaborn Roddenbery, a Democrat of Georgia, again introduced a proposal in the House of Representatives to insert a prohibition of miscegenation into the US Constitution. According to the wording of the proposed amendment, "Intermarriage between Negroes or persons of color and Caucasians... within the United States... is forever prohibited." Roddenbery's proposal was more severe because it defined the racial boundary between whites and "persons of color" by applying the one-drop rule. In his proposed amendment, anyone with "any trace of African or Negro blood" was banned from marrying a white spouse.
Roddenbery's proposed amendment was a direct reaction to black boxer Jack Johnson's marriages to white women, first to Etta Duryea and then to Lucille Cameron. In 1908, Johnson had become the first black boxing world champion, having beaten Tommy Burns. Johnson's marriages to and affairs with white women infuriated white Americans. In his speech introducing his bill before the United States Congress, Roddenbery compared the marriage of Johnson and Cameron to the enslavement of white women, and warned of future civil war that would ensue if interracial marriage was not made illegal nationwide:
"No brutality, no infamy, no degradation in all the years of southern slavery, possessed such villainous character and such atrocious qualities as the provision of the laws of Illinois, Massachusetts, and other states which allow the marriage of the Negro, Jack Johnson, to a woman of Caucasian strain. [Applause]. Gentleman, I offer this resolution ... that the States of the Union may have an opportunity to ratify it. ... Intermarriage between whites and blacks is repulsive and averse to every sentiment of pure American spirit. It is abhorrent and repugnant to the very principles of Saxon government. It is subversive of social peace. It is destructive of moral supremacy, and ultimately this slavery of white women to black beasts will bring this nation a conflict as fatal as ever reddened the soil of Virginia or crimsoned the mountain paths of Pennsylvania. ... Let us uproot and exterminate now this debasing, ultra-demoralizing, un-American and inhuman leprosy"
Congressional Record, 62d. Congr., 3d. Sess., December 11, 1912, pp. 502–503.
Roddenbery's proposal of the anti-miscegenation amendment unleashed a wave of racialist support for the move: 19 states that lacked such laws proposed their enactment. However, Wyoming in 1913 was the only state lacking such a law that enacted one.[citation needed] Also in 1913, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, which had abolished its anti-miscegenation law in 1843, enacted a measure (not repealed until 2008[5]) that prevented couples who could not marry in their home state from marrying in Massachusetts.[6]
  • In 1928, Senator Coleman Blease, a Democrat of South Carolina, proposed an amendment that went beyond the previous ones, requiring that Congress set a punishment for interracial couples attempting to get married and for people officiating an interracial marriage. This amendment was also never enacted.[7]

See also

External links


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