Erich Hartmann

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Erich Hartmann
Erich Hartmann, der blonde Ritter der Lüfte III.jpg
Leutnant Hartmann
Birth name Erich Alfred Hartmann
Nickname Bubi
("The Kid")
Ritter der Lüfte
("Knight of the Skies")
Der Schwarze Teufel
("The Black Devil")[1]
Birth date 19 April 1922(1922-04-19)
Place of birth Weissach, Württemberg, Weimar Republic
Death date 20 September 1993 (aged 71)
Place of death Weil im Schönbuch, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Resting place New Cemetery Weil im Schönbuch
Allegiance  National Socialist Germany
 West Germany
Service/branch Luftwaffe eagle.jpg Luftwaffe
Bundeswehr cross.png Bundeswehr (Luftwaffe)
Years of service 1940–1945
Rank Major (Wehrmacht)
Oberst (Bundeswehr)
Unit JG 52, JG 53 and JG 71
Commands held I./JG 52 and Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 71 "Richthofen"
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds
Relations ∞ 1944 Ursula "Uschi" Elisabeth Therese Auguste Paetsch
Other work Civilian flight instructor

Erich Alfred Hartmann (b. 19 April 1922 in Weissach, Württemberg; d. 20 September 1993 in Weil im Schönbuch, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) was a German officer of the Wehrmacht and fighter pilot (Jagdflieger) of the Luftwaffe during World War II. He was the most successful fighter ace (Flieger-As) in the history of aerial warfare.[1] He flew 1,404 combat missions (Feindflüge) and participated in aerial combat on 825 separate occasions.[2] He was credited with shooting down a total of 352 Allied aircraft: 345 Soviet and seven American while serving with the Luftwaffe. During the course of his career, Hartmann was forced to crash-land his fighter 16 times due either to mechanical failure or damage received from parts of enemy aircraft he had shot down; he was never shot down by direct enemy action.[2] After his time as a POW and his return to Germany, he became an Oberst of the Deutsche Luftwaffe of the new Bundeswehr. He was also an international aviation consultant, for instance 1972 during construction of the Zurich Airport.

Hartmann was the subject of a biography by the American authors Trevor J. Constable and Raymond F. Toliver,[3] under the title The Blond Knight of Germany. Originally released in the United States in 1970, it was published in Germany the next year, as Holt Hartmann vom Himmel! ("Shoot Hartmann down!").[4] The Blond Knight was a commercial success and enjoyed a wide readership among both the American, British and the German public as was Horrido! Fighter Aces of the Luftwaffe by the same authors.


"Bubi" Hartmann as member of the Flieger-HJ
According to US historian David T. Zabecki, Hartmann was credited with 352 aerial victories.[5] Spick also lists Hartmann with 352 aerial victories claimed in 1,425 combat missions, all of which on the Eastern Front.[6] Matthews and Foreman, authors of Luftwaffe Aces – Biographies and Victory Claims, researched the German Federal Archives (Bundesarchiv) and found records for 352 aerial victory claims, plus two further unconfirmed claims. This number includes two claims over United States Army Air Forces flown P-51 Mustangs, and 350 Soviet Air Forces piloted aircraft on the Eastern Front.[7]
Erich and Uschi on the day of their war wedding (Kriegstrauung)
Erich Hartmann, der blonde Ritter der Lüfte.jpg
Erich Alfred Hartmann (Bundeswehr).jpg
Even in the 21st century, Erich Hartmann is still a German war hero (Kriegsheld)

Hartmann was educated at the Volksschule in Weil im Schönbuch (April 1928 – April 1932), the Gymnasium in Böblingen (April 1932 – April 1936), the National Political Institutes of Education (Nationalpolitische Erziehungsanstalt) in Rottweil (April 1936 – April 1937), and the Gymnasium in Korntal (April 1937 – April 1940), from which he received his Abitur.[8] It was at Korntal that he met his wife-to-be, Ursula "Usch" Paetsch.[9]

Hartmann's flying career began when he joined the glider training program (Segelfliegerei) of the fledgling Luftwaffe and was taught to fly by his mother, one of the first female glider pilots in Germany. The Hartmanns also owned a light aircraft but were forced to sell it in 1932 as the German economy collapsed.[10] The rise to power of the NSDAP in 1933 resulted in government support for gliding, and, in 1936, Elisabeth Hartmann established the glider club in Weil im Schönbuch for locals and served as instructor.[11] The 14-year-old Hartmann became a gliding instructor in the Hitler Youth.[10] In 1937, he gained his pilot's license (Segelflugschein A), in 1938 Segelflugschein B, and in 1939 Segelflugschein C.[1] In 1940, he achieved his Abitur at the elite Internat Gymnasium Korntal.


Hartmann began his military training on 1 October 1940 at the 10th Flying Regiment (Luftwaffenausbildungs-Regiment 10) in Neukuhren. On 1 March 1941, he progressed to the Luftkriegsschule 2 (Air War School 2) in Berlin-Gatow, making his first flight with an instructor four days later, followed in just under three weeks by his first solo flight.[12] He completed his basic flying training in October 1941 and began advanced flight training at pre-fighter school 2 in Lachen-Speyerdorf (Neustadt an der Weinstraße) on 1 November 1941. There, Hartmann learned combat techniques and gunnery skills. His advanced pilot training was completed on 31 January 1942, and, between 1 March 1942 and 20 August 1942, he learned to fly the Messerschmitt Bf 109 at the Jagdfliegerschule 2[13] (Fighter Pilot School 2).[14][12]

Hartmann's time as a trainee pilot did not always go smoothly. On 31 March 1942, during a gunnery training flight, he ignored regulations and performed some aerobatics in his Bf 109 over the Zerbst airfield. His punishment was a week of confinement to quarters with the loss of two-thirds of his pay in fines. Hartmann later recalled that the incident saved his life:

That week confined to my room actually saved my life. I had been scheduled to go up on a gunnery flight the afternoon that I was confined. My roommate took the flight instead of me, in an aircraft I had been scheduled to fly. Shortly after he took off, while on his way to the gunnery range, he developed engine trouble and had to crash-land near the Hindenburg-Kattowitz railroad. He was killed in the crash.[15]

Afterward, Hartmann practised diligently and adopted a new credo which he passed on to other young pilots: "Fly with your head, not with your muscles."[2] During a gunnery practice session in June 1942, he hit a target drogue with 24 of the allotted 50 rounds of machine-gun fire, a feat that was considered difficult to achieve.[15] His training had qualified him to fly 17 different types of powered aircraft,[15] and, following his graduation, he was posted on 21 August 1942 to Ergänzungs-Jagdgruppe Ost (Supplementary Fighter Group, East) in Krakau, Upper Silesia, where he remained until 10 October 1942.[16]

On 29 October 1943, Hartmann was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for 148 enemy aircraft destroyed and the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross for 202 enemy aircraft on 2 March 1944. Exactly four months later, he received the Swords to the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves for 268 enemy aircraft shot down. Ultimately, Hartmann earned the coveted Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds on 25 August 1944 for 301 aerial victories. At the time of its presentation to Hartmann, this was Germany's highest military decoration.{{refn |In 1944, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds was second only to the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), which was awarded only to senior commanders for winning a major battle or campaign, in the military order of the Third Reich. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds as the highest military order was surpassed on 29 December 1944 by the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten). Hartmann achieved his 352nd and last aerial victory at midday on 8 May 1945 over Brünn (Moravia), hours before the surrender of the Wehrmacht.


  • 21 August 1944: "Oberleutnant Hartmann yesterday, with the shooting down of 8 Soviet aircraft, raised the total of his aerial victories to 290."[17]
  • 25 August 1944: "In aerial combats and through anti-aircraft fire, the Soviets yesterday lost 58 aircraft. Of these, Oberleutnant Hartmann, decorated with the Eichenlaub zum Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes and Staffelkapitän in a Jagdgeschwader, alone shot down 11 aircraft and thereby gained his 301st aerial victory."


Along with the remainder of JG 52, he surrendered to United States Army forces near Pisek and was turned over to the Red Army. In an attempt to pressure him into service with the Soviet-friendly East German forces, he was tried on war crimes charges and convicted. He was initially sentenced to 20 years of imprisonment, later increased to 25 years.

Sentenced to 25 years of hard labour in 1950 (Zwangsarbeit),[18] he refused to work, and was put into solitary confinement, which led to a riot by some of his fellow detainees, who overpowered the guards, and temporarily freed him. He made a complaint to the Kommandant's office, asking for a representative from Moscow and an international inspection, as well as a new trial hearing to overturn his sentence. This was refused, and he was transferred to a gulag in Novocherkassk, where he spent five more months in solitary confinement. He was later put before a new tribunal, which upheld the original sentence. He was subsequently sent to another camp, this time at Diaterka in the Ural Mountains.[19] In late 1955 Hartmann was released as a part of the last Spätheimkehrer.[20]

In January 1997 (unofficially already in May 1995[21]), more than three years after his death, Hartmann's case was reviewed by the Chief Military Prosecutor in Moscow of the Russian Federation, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and he was acquitted of all historical charges against him in Russian Law. The government agency stated that he had been wrongly convicted.[22][23]


In 1956, Hartmann joined the newly established West German Air Force in the Bundeswehr as Major, and became the first Geschwaderkommodore of Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 71 "Richthofen". Hartmann also made several trips to the United States (among them Gunnery Training, Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, USA), where he was trained on U.S. Air Force equipment. Hartmann and the former Luftwaffe pilots needed only familiarisation training.[24] He commanded West Germany's first all-jet unit (JG 71 "Richthofen") from 6 June 1959 to 29 May 1962, his successor was his friend Oberst Günther Josten (de).

He was retired on 30 September 1970, due to his opposition to the procurement of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. Hartmann considered the F-104 a fundamentally flawed and unsafe aircraft (269 crashes and 116 German pilots killed on the F-104 in non-combat missions, along with strong allegations of bribes culminating in the Lockheed bribery scandals) and strongly opposed its adoption by the air force.[25] Already in 1957, Hartmann had recommended to Kammhuber to first buy and evaluate a few new and unfamiliar aircraft before committing the air force to a new aircraft type.[26] From 1971 to 1974, Hartmann worked as a gliding and powered flight instructor in Hangelar, near Bonn, but also in Weil im Schönbuch (until 1973), and also flew in fly-ins with other wartime pilots.


Erich Hartmann died on 20 September 1993, at the age of 71 in Weil im Schönbuch.[20] In 2016, Hartmann's former German Air Force unit, JG 71, honoured him by applying his tulip colour scheme to their current aircraft.[27]


Erich Hartmann was born 1922 to Dr. med. Alfred Erich Hartmann (1894-1952) and his wife, Elisabeth Wilhelmine, née Machtholf (1897-1990). The economic depression that followed World War I in Germany prompted Doctor Hartmann to find work in China, and Erich spent his early childhood there. The family was forced to return to Germany in 1928, when the Chinese Civil War broke out.[28] During World War II, Hartmann's younger brother, Alfred (b. 1923), also joined the Luftwaffe, serving as a gunner on a Junkers Ju 87 in North Africa. Alfred Hartmann was captured by the British and spent four years as a prisoner of war.[29] Alfred studied medicine after the war and, like his father, became a Dr. med.


Erich Hartmann married his fiancée Ursula "Uschi" Elisabeth Therese Auguste Paetsch (1924–1996) on 10 September 1944 (civil marriage) in Bad Wiessee. Gerhard Barkhorn (de), Wilhelm Batz (de) and Walter Krupinski (de) were wedding witnesses. The church wedding did not take place until after the war. During his long imprisonment, Hartmann's son, Erich-Peter, was born in 1945 and died as a three-year-old in 1948, without his father ever having seen him. Hartmann later had a daughter, Ursula Isabel, born on 23 February 1957.[30]


  • "The amazing thing about Erich Hartmann's achievements is that they are not based on a single exceptional talent. He is a very good flyer, certainly, but not a virtuoso like Hans-Joachim Marseille, who was killed after 158 aerial victories in North Africa and is regarded as an unrivaled marksman by his friends and foes. Hartmann is not an intelligent tactical innovator like Werner Mölders. It seems to me that he controls his flying talent, his good eyesight and his aggressiveness with an extremely cool mind as soon as he engages the enemy. He does not risk too much, but attacks his opponents from a superior position, mostly from behind, shoots from close range and immediately disengages."Günther Rall[31] (de)


Hartmann joined the military service in Wehrmacht on 1 October 1940. His first station was Neukuhren in East Prussia, where he received his military basic training as a Luftwaffe recruit.

Luftwaffe (Wehrmacht)

  • 1941 Fahnenjunker-Gefreiter (officer candidate)
  • 1 April 1942: Leutnant (second lieutenant)
  • 1 May 1944: Oberleutnant (first lieutenant)
  • 1 September 1944: Hauptmann (captain)
  • 8 May 1945: Major (major)

Luftwaffe (Bundeswehr)

  • 1 August 1956: Major (provisional)
  • December 1956: Major
  • 12 December 1960: Oberstleutnant (lieutenant colonel)
  • 26 July 1967: Oberst (colonel)

Awards and decorations

Hartmann had kept the whereabouts of his Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross secret from his captors during his time as a prisoner of war, claiming that he had thrown it away. The hiding place was in a small stream. His comrade Hans "Assi" Hahn (de) managed to hide the Knight's Cross in a double bottom cigar box and smuggled it back to Germany when he was released from captivity.[41]

Further reading

  • Barbas, Bernd (2005). Die Geschichte der II. Gruppe des Jagdgeschwaders 52 (in de). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-71-7. 
  • Barbas, Bernd (2010). Die Geschichte der III. Gruppe des Jagdgeschwaders 52 (in de). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-94-6. 
  • Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges (in de). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6. 
  • Bergström, Christer (2007). Kursk – The Air Battle: July 1943. Burgess Hill: Chevron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-903223-88-8. 
  • Bergström, Christer (2008). Bagration to Berlin—The Final Air Battles in the East: 1944–1945. Burgess Hill: Classic Publications. ISBN 978-1-903223-91-8. 
  • Braatz, Kurt (2010). Walter Krupinski – Jagdflieger, Geheimagent, General (in de). Moosburg, Germany: NeunundzwanzigSechs Verlag. ISBN 978-3-9811615-5-7. 
  • (1988) The Air Fighters. Harrisburg: National Historical Society. ISBN 0-918678-39-0. 
  • Corum, James (2003). "Starting from Scratch: Establishing The Bundesluftwaffe as a Modern Air Force, 1955-1960". Air Power History 50. Air Force Historical Foundation.
  • Deac, Wil (1998). Air War's Top Ace, WWII Air War, The Men, The Machines, The Missions. Stamford, Connecticut: Cowles Enthusiast Media. ISBN 978-1-55836-193-5. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile (in de). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Fraschka, Günther (2002). Mit Schwertern und Brillanten—Die Träger der höchsten deutschen Tapferkeitsauszeichnung, 11, Munich, Germany: Universitas. ISBN 978-3-8004-1435-2. 
  • (1992) German Fighter Ace Erich Hartmann. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-396-5. 
  • Harvey, Arnold D. (Spring 2012). "The Battle of Britain, in 1940 and "Big Week," in 1944: A Comparative Perspective". Air Power History 59. Air Force Historical Foundation.
  • Harvey, Arnold D. (2018). "The Russian Air Force Versus the Luftwaffe: A Western European View". Air Power History 65. Air Force Historical Foundation.
  • Kaplan, Philip (2007). Fighter Aces of the Luftwaffe in World War II. Auldgirth, Dumfriesshire, UK: Pen & Sword Aviation. ISBN 978-1-84415-460-9. 
  • Maerz, Dietrich (2007). Das Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes und seine Höheren Stufen (in de). Richmond, Michigan: B&D Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9797969-1-3. 
  • (2015) Luftwaffe Aces – Biographies and Victory Claims – Volume 2 G–L. Walton on Thames: Red Kite. ISBN 978-1-906592-19-6. 
  • Mitcham, Samuel (2012). Hitler's Commanders: Officers of the Wehrmacht, the Luftwaffe, the Kriegsmarine and the Waffen SS. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-1153-7. 
  • Laura Notheisen (31 January 2017). So war der deutsche Landser. Die populäre und populärwissenschaftliche Darstellung der Wehrmacht (de).
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 (in de). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7. 
  • Patton, James (Spring 1991). "Stealth is a Zero-sum Game: A submariner's view of the advanced tactical fighter". Airpower Journal V: 4-17. Air University Press.
  • (2001) Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II (in de). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. 
  • (2008) Der Ehrenpokal für besondere Leistung im Luftkrieg (in de). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-08-3. 
  • Prien, Jochen (1991). Pik-As: Geschichte des Jagdgeschwaders 53 – 3 – Das Ende in Italien 1944, Rumänien, Ungarn 1944/45, Einsatz zur Verteidigung des Reiches 1943–1945 (in de). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-16-8. 
  • (2006) Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 9/II—Vom Sommerfeldzug 1942 bis zur Niederlage von Stalingrad—1.5.1942 bis 3.2.1943 (in de). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-77-9. 
  • (2012) Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 12/II—Einsatz im Osten—4.2. bis 31.12.1943 (in de). Eutin, Germany: Buchverlag Rogge. ISBN 978-3-942943-05-5. 
  • Rall, Günther (2007). Günther Rall: Mein Flugbuch—Erinnerungen 1938–2004 (in de). Moosburg, Germany: NeunundzwanzigSechs Verlag. ISBN 978-3-9807935-3-7. 
  • Reynolds, Clark (1982). Die Luftwaffe (in de). Altville am Rhein: Time-Life Books/Bechtermünz Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-86047-050-3. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in de). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Schreier, Hans (1990). JG 52 Das erfolgreichste Jagdgeschwader des 2. Weltkriegs (in de). Berg am See: K. Vowinckel. ISBN 978-3-921655-66-5. 
  • (2008) The Myth of the Eastern Front: The Nazi-Soviet War in American Popular Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83365-3. 
  • Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces: The Jadgflieger and their Combat Tactics and Techniques. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN 978-0-8041-1696-1. 
  • Spick, Mike (1988). The Ace Factor: Air Combat & the Role of Situational Awareness. Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0870210020. 
  • Stockert, Peter (2007). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 5 (in de). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. OCLC 76072662. 
  • Sullivan, Robert (1976). "World War II Aces in Arizona: The "Experten" and the Flying Tiger". Aerospace Historian 23. Air Force Historical Foundation.
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K (in de). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6. 
  • (2008) Air Combat Manoeuvres: The Technique and History of Air Fighting for Flight Simulation. Hersham, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-903223-98-7. 
  • Tillman, Barrett (August 2006). "Shot Down or Out of Gas?". Flight Journal 11 (4).
  • Wagenlehner, Günther (1999). Die russischen Bemühungen um die Rehabilitierung der 1941–1956 verfolgten deutschen Staatsbürger (in de). Bonn, Germany: Historisches Forschungszentrum. ISBN 978-3-86077-855-5. 
  • Weal, John (2001). Bf 109 Aces of the Russian Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-084-1. 
  • Weal, John (2004). Jagdgeschwader 52: The Experten (Aviation Elite Units). Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-786-4. 
  • (2014) Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-59884-980-6. 
  • (2019) The German War Machine in World War II. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-44-086918-1. 
  • Zegenhagen, Evelyn (2007). "The Holy Desire to Serve the Poor and Tortured Fatherland: German Women Motor Pilots of the Inter-War Era and Their Political Mission". German Studies Review 30: 579–596. The Johns Hopkins University Press/German Studies Association.


External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Zabecki 2014, p. 586.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Reynolds 1982, p. 132.
  3. Trevor J. Constable and Colonel Raymond F. Toliver were American authors who produced 10 non-fiction books on the fighter aces of World War II. Toliver was a U.S. Air Force pilot and official historian of the American Fighter Aces Association.
  4. Notheisen 2017.
  5. Zabecki 2019, p. 328.
  6. Spick 1996, p. 227.
  7. Matthews & Foreman 2015, pp. 485–492.
  8. Stockert 2007, pp. 39–40.
  9. Hartmann & Jäger 1992, pp. 8–10.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kaplan 2007, p. 89.
  11. Zegenhagen 2007, pp. 579–596.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Kaplan 2007, pp. 89–90.
  13. Jagdfliegerschule Schleissheim – Jagdfliegerschule 2
  14. Mitcham 2012, p. 197.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Kaplan 2007, p. 90.
  16. Kaplan 2007, p. 91.
  17. Erich Hartmann,
  18. Wagenlehner 1999, p. 77.
  19. Kaplan 2007, p. 122–123.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Zabecki 2014, p. 587.
  21. Peter Jochen Winters: Rußland rehabilitiert Opfer politischer Verfolgung – Willkürjustiz gegen Kriegsgefangene und Internierte – Der Fall Hartmann, in: FAZ 19.5.1995
  22. Wagenlehner 1999, p. 78.
  23. Hartmann at
  24. Corum 2003, pp. 16–29.
  25. Zabecki 2014, p. 19.
  26. Der Spiegel Volume 35/1982.
  27. Der "grau-rote Baron" fliegt über Wittmund.
  28. Kaplan 2007, p. 88.
  29. Mitcham 2012, p. 199.
  30. Kaplan 2007, p. 125.
  31. Rall 2007, pp. 181–182.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Thomas 1997, p. 249.
  33. Patzwall 2008, p. 95.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Berger 1999, p. 105.
  35. Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 166.
  36. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 214.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 Scherzer 2007, p. 368.
  38. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 79.
  39. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 43.
  40. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 37.
  41. Maerz 2007, p. 120.