Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz
Hyacinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz (b. 30 July 1893 in Groß Stein, Province of Silesia, German Empire; d. 25 April 1968 in Trostberg, Upper Bavaria, Germany) was a German aristocratic as well as officer of the Imperial German Army, of the Freikorps, of the SS and of the Wehrmacht, at last highly decorated Generalleutnant in WW II.
Graf Strachwitz saw action in World War I, but rose to fame for his command of armored forces in World War II. For these services he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten), an award created to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or outstanding military leadership. At the time of its presentation to Strachwitz it was Germany's highest military decoration.
Großdeutschland Panzer Regiment – End of War
In January 1943, Strachwitz was given command of Panzerregiment Großdeutschland of the Panzergrenadier Division Großdeutschland. He led the regiment when it took part in the Third Battle of Kharkov, fighting alongside SS-Gruppenführer Paul Hausser's II SS Panzer Corps. For his actions during these battles, Strachwitz was awarded the Swords to his Knight's Cross. In November 1943, Strachwitz left the Großdeutschland on grounds of ill-health, although tension between him and the division's commander Walter Papa Hörnlein is thought by many veterans to be the true reason for Strachwitz's departure.
After a month's sick leave, Strachwitz was recalled to active duty and promoted to Generalmajor der Reserve, and was placed in command of the 1st Panzer Division, though for a short period only.
In January 1945 Graf Strachwitz, who had been wounded 14 times (9 times very seriously), was promoted once again, this time to "Generalleutnant", the second highest title of the German Army (German: Heer).
Following a visit of the commander of the Panzerjagdverbände of Army Group Vistula, Oberst Ernst-Wilhelm Freiherr Gedult von Jungenfeld, all of the Panzerjagdverbände were to be centralized under Strachwitz' command. In April 1945 the Panzerjagdeinheiten of Army Group Center were all put under his command, this included Panzerjagdverbände A, B and C, the Heeres-Panzerjagdbrigaden 1 and 3, two Volkssturm-Panzerjagdbrigaden and the Panzerjagdbrigaden Niederschlesien (Lower Silesia) and Free Ukrainians. Strachwitz deployed his men in small combat groups, sometimes operating behind enemy lines, which lured enemy tanks into traps and attacked them with Panzerfaust's. Combat reached its peak in April 1945 and some of his men were credited with more than ten enemy tanks destroyed. The German front line of Army Group Center at the time was in mid Silesia along the Zobten, and via Schweidnitz and Jauer to Lauban. The main Soviet thrust was targeted for Berlin and Dresden. This threatened the in Silesia fighting German troops to be encircled. Strachwitz and his men kept on fighting under the command of Schörner until the German capitulation on 8 May 1945.
Strachwitz led his men in a successful and brave breakout from Russian encirclement and partisan terror in Czechoslovakia to the U.S.-held region of Bavaria, where all surrendered to U.S. Army forces near Felgen. Strachwitz was taken to the prisoner of war camp at Allendorf near Marburg, where he was interred together with Franz Halder, Heinz Guderian and fighter ace General of the Luftwaffe Adolf Galland.
Post-war and final years
Graf Strachwitz was released as a prisoner of war by the Allies in June 1947. He had lost his wife, his youngest son and his estate during the war. He quickly married again and accepted the invitation of Husni al-Za'im to come to Syria as an agricultural and military advisor to the Syrian Armed Forces. This he did from January–June 1949, a period during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War (15 May 1948 – 10 March 1949) which was fought with Syrian involvement. The influential man behind Husni al-Za'im was Adib Shishakli, who wanted a Pan-Arabian revolution and was trying to run the state from behind the scenes. Seeing himself as a state-maker, the Otto von Bismarck of the Arabian peoples, Shishakli's goal was to morph Syria into a kind of Prussian Arabia. He owned a Mercedes car which had once belonged to Adolf Hitler. Under his leadership, Syria brought over 30 advisors to Syria. Strachwitz, bragging about his military successes in Russia, had a very difficult time with the Syrian officers, and his agricultural suggestions were ignored as well. When Adib Shishakli seized power, Strachwitz and his wife left Syria. In the meantime they had received a visa for Argentina, where they hoped to find another advisory position. Via Lebanon they arrived in Livorno, Italy, where they changed their plans and ran a winery.
They returned to Germany in 1951 with a Red Cross passport. The family settled on an estate in Winkl near Grabenstätt in Bavaria, where he lived out his final years quietly and in wealth.
Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz died on 25 April 1968 of lung cancer in the hospital of Trostberg. Der Panzergraf was laid to rest with full military honors (German: Ehrengeleit) in the village cemetery of Grabenstätt, beside his first wife. The Bundeswehr provided an honour guard as a mark of respect. Brigadegeneral and former comrade Heinz-Georg Lemm delivered the eulogy.
Strachwitz married Alexandrine Freiin Saurma-Jeltsch, nicknamed "Alda", on 25 July 1919. Their first child, a son, was born on 4 May 1920. Following family tradition, he was named Hyacinth (severley wounded in battle). The marriage also produced a daughter, Alexandrine Aloysia Maria Elisabeth Therese, born 30 July 1921, nicknamed "Lisalex" a communications officer (Blitzmädel) during the war, followed by a second son, Hubertus Arthur, nicknamed "Harti", born 11 March 1925. Alda was killed in a traffic accident on 6 January 1946, run over by a US military truck in Velden an der Vils. Strachwitz, still a US prisoner of war in camp Allendorf near Marburg, was denied permission to attend the funeral. Harti, who had lost a leg but still freely reported back to duty, was killed in action shortly before the end of the war on 25 March 1945 near Holstein. Strachwitz married again on 30 July 1947 in Holzhausen.
With his new wife Nora, née von Stumm (1916–2000), he had four children, two daughters and two sons, born between 1951 and 1960.
|17 February 1914:||Leutnant (Second Lieutenant)|
|1921:||Oberleutnant (First Lieutenant), effective as 1916|
|9 August 1933:||SS-Mann|
|15 September 1933:||SS-Scharführer|
|19 December 1933:||SS-Truppführer (Troop Leader)|
|10 March 1934:||SS-Obertruppführer|
|28 April 1934:||SS-Untersturmführer|
|9 November 1934:||SS-Obersturmführer|
|1934:||Hauptmann (Captain) of the Reserves|
|15 September 1935:||SS-Hauptsturmführer|
|1935:||Rittmeister (Cavalry Master) of the Reserves|
|13 September 1936:||SS-Sturmbannführer|
|30 January 1939:||SS-Obersturmbannführer|
|1940:||Major (Major) of the Reserves|
|1 January 1942:||Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel) of the Reserves|
|1 January 1943:||Oberst (Colonel) of the Reserves|
|3 November 1943:||SS-Standartenführer, effective as 1 September 1943|
|1 April 1944:||Generalmajor (Major General) of the Reserves|
|30 January 1945:||Generalleutnant (Lieutenant General) of the Reserves|
- Iron Cross (1914)
- Silesian Eagle 2nd and 1st Class with Oak Leaves and Swords (1921)
- The Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918 with swords
- Clasp to the Iron Cross (1939)
- Deutsches Reichssportabzeichen (1941)
- Order of the Crown (Romania) (9 June 1941)
- Panzer Badge
- Eastern Front Medal (August 1942)
- Wound Badge (1939)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds
- Knight's Cross on 25 August 1941 as Major of the Reserves and commander of the I./Panzer-Regiment 2
- 144th Oak Leaves on 13 November 1942 as Oberstleutnant of the Reserves and commander of the I./Panzer-Regiment 2
- 27th Swords on 28 March 1943 as Oberst of the Reserves and commander of the Panzer-Regiment "Großdeutschland"
- 11th Diamonds on 15 April 1944 as Oberst of the Reserves and commander of a Panzer-Gruppe with the Heeresgruppe Nord
- Units under his command have been mentioned numerous times in the Wehrmachtbericht
Strachwitz is often credited with the German Cross in Gold awarded on 29 May 1943, this however was awarded to his son, also named Hyacinth, who received this award as Oberleutnant in the 4./Panzer Regiment 15.
- Walther-Peer Fellgiebel: Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German), Podzun-Pallas, Friedberg 1986, ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Franz Thomas: Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945, Band 1: A–K (in German), Biblio-Verlag, Osnabrück 1998, ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6
- Veit Scherzer: Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945. Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German), Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag, Jena 2007, ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Hans-Joachim Röll: Generalleutnant der Reserve Hyacinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz: Vom Kavallerieoffizier zum Führer gepanzerter Verbände [Lieutenant General of the Reserve Hyacinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz: From a Cavalry Officer to a Leader of Armoured Units] (in German), Flechsig, Würzburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8035-0015-1.
- According to Röll his first name is spelled "Hyacinth". Groß-Zauche, in German, is spelled with a "sharp S"; see ß.
- Von Ehrenkrook 2000, p. 497.
- In 1944, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds was second only to the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), which was awarded only to senior commanders for winning a major battle or campaign, in the military order of the Third Reich. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds as the highest military order was surpassed on 29 December 1944 by the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten).
- History of the Panzerregiment Grossdeutschland refers to this in detail (J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing).
- Röll explicitly mentions the location "Felgen". It is unclear what place is meant by "Felgen". It could be Auf den Folgen near Všemily, Jetřichovice or Velden.
- Röll 2011, p. 175.
- Hartmann 2000, p. 160.
- Röll 2011, p. 181.
- Röll 2011, p. 189.
- Thomas 1998, p. 356.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 728.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 413.
- Von Seemen 1976, p. 331.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 63.
- Von Seemen 1976, p. 31.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 41.
- Von Seemen 1976, p. 15.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 37.
- Von Seemen 1976, p. 12.
- Patzwall and Scherzer 2001, p. 463.