|— State of Germany —|
|Berliner Fernsehturm, Brandenburger Tor, Rotes Rathaus, Reichstag, and Berliner Dom|
|European Union and Germany|
|- Governing Mayor||Klaus Wowereit (SPD)|
|- Governing parties||SPD / The Left|
|- Votes in Bundesrat||4 (of 69)|
|- City||891.85 km2 (344.3 sq mi)|
|Elevation||34 - 115 m (-343 ft)|
|Population (30 September 2010)|
|- Density||3,869.4/km2 (10,021.6/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|- Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||DE-BE|
|GDP/ Nominal||€ 94.7 billion (2010) |
Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. With a population of 3.4 million in its city limits, Berlin is the country's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the ninth most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan area, comprising 4.9 million people from over 180 nations.
First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was successively the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918), the German Empire (1871-1918), the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and the Third Reich (1933-1945). After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a Western enclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall from 1961-1989. Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, the city regained its status as the capital of all Germany.
Berlin is a major center in European politics, culture, media, and science. It serves as a continental hub for air and rail transport. The city's economy is primarily based on the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, media corporations, environmental services, congress and convention venues. Berlin is the third most-visited tourist destination in the EU. Other industries include traffic engineering, optoelectronics, IT, vehicle manufacturing, health care, biomedical engineering, and biotechnology.
Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22 - and lows of 12 -. Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of 3 C and lows of -2 to. Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings. Temperatures can be 4 C-change higher in the city than in the surrounding areas.
Annual precipitation is 570 mm with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through March, but snow cover does not usually remain for long. The recent winter of 2009/2010 was an exception since there was a permanent snow cover from late December till early March.
- Bevölkerungsentwicklung und Bevölkerungsstand in Berlin 3. Quartal 2010 (German). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (January 2011). Retrieved on 7 April 2011.
- Bruttoinlandsprodukt (nominal) in BERLIN seit 1995 (German) (30 March 2010). Retrieved on 15 May 2011.
- weather.com. weather.com. Retrieved on 7 April 2012.
- Climate figures. World Weather Information Service. Retrieved on 18 August 2008.