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Pomerania (German: Pommern, Polish: Pomorze, Kashubian: Pòmòrze or Pòmòrskô), is a historical region and province of Germany on the south shore of the Baltic Sea. Today a minor part remains in Germany, with the bulk being under the occupation of Poland since May 1945. The indigenous German population were raped, murdered and expelled[1][2][3] and replaced by imported Poles from central and eastern Poland. Some Kashubians have always lived in the far east of the province.

Pomerania stretches roughly from the Recknitz River near Stralsund in the West, via the Oder River delta near Stettin, to the mouth of the Vistula River near Danzig in the East. It belongs to the lowlands of the great North European Plain. Outside the few urban centers, such as Kolberg and most notably Stettin and other metropolitan areas, the poor soil is mostly used as farmland, dotted with numerous lakes, forests, and small towns. Primary agriculture consists of raising livestock, forestry, fishery and the cultivation of cereals, sugar beets, and potatoes, although the agricultural produce is today a fraction of what it was before World War II.

Since the late 19th century, tourism has become an important sector of the economy, primarily in the numerous seaside resorts along the coast. Of the limited industrial zones, notably Stettin, the most important products are ships, metal products, refined sugar, and paper.

Early history

Poland's second king, Boleslaw I 'the Brave' (r.992-1025) was expansionist and invaded Pomerania, defeating the indigenous Pomeranian tribes.[4] But following this conquest the Poles withdrew. However they returned under their Duke Boleslaw III 'the Wrymouth' (r.1102-38) who reconquered Pomerania, giving Poland a temporary seaboard. But the division of loyalties among the several Polish princes brought on a long period of dynastic struggle, intrigue, and national weakness. Poland soon lost the by now largely Germanised Pomerania.[5] By the 1300s Pomerania was ruled by the House of Svantibors, and in 1396 Duke Wratislav of Pomerania's son, Bogislav (renamed Erik), a nephew of Margareta, Queen of all Scandinavia at this time, was chosen by her to ascend the throne of Sweden.[6]


  1. The Expulsion of the German Population from the Territories East of the Oder-Neisse-Line, editor, Professor Theodor Schieder, University of Koln, et al, with translations by Professor Dr. Vivian Stranders, M.A., University of London, FDR Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims, Bonn, 1954.
  2. The Hour of the Women by Christian, Count von Krockow, English-language edition London, 1991, ISBN 0-571-14320-2
  3. Promise Me You'll Shoot Yourself - The Downfall of Ordinary Germans in 1945 by Florian Huber, Allen Lane publishers, U.K., 2019, ISBN: 978-0-241-39924-8
  4. Gurney, Gene, Kingdoms of Europe, New York, 1982, p.507. ISBN 0-517-543958
  5. Davies, Norman, Heart of Europe, Clarendon Press, Oxford UK, 1984, p.286-7.
  6. Lindquist, Herman, A History of Sweden, Stockholm, 2002/2006, p.77, ISBN 10:91-1-301455-2