the Catholic Church
Homosexuality is sexuality directed at individuals of the same sex.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Prevalence
- 3 Causes of homosexuality
- 3.1 Hard-wired or not
- 3.2 Heritability
- 3.3 Changes in sexual identity for homosexuals
- 3.4 Fraternal birth order effect
- 3.5 Sex hormones
- 3.6 Gender nonconformity
- 3.7 Dysfunctional family structure during childhood and adolescence
- 3.8 Maltreatment during childhood and adolescence
- 3.9 Absence of available sex partners of the opposite sex
- 3.10 Evolutionary explanations
- 4 Similarities between homosexual men and heterosexual women
- 5 Homosexuality as a disease
- 6 Health
- 7 Homosexuality and pedophilia
- 8 Children and homosexual parents
- 9 Relationship stability
- 10 Violence and general criminality
- 11 Argued pro-homosexual bias in research and statements on research
- 12 Media propaganda
- 13 Pornography
- 14 Other political activism
- 15 Homosexuals and mass immigration
- 16 Opposition to homosexuality
- 17 Homosexuals and the Holocaust
- 18 Views on homosexuality by various websites
- 19 See also
- 20 External links
- 21 References
The word homosexual comes from Greek homos "same" + Latin sexual. The word is argued to have been created by Karl-Maria Kertbeny, in an anonymous pamphlet published in Germany in 1869. It and rival terminology were created as replacements for earlier derogatory words. The word appeared in English in 1892, in a translation of a German work. In 1897, Havelock Ellis stated that it is a "barbarously hybrid word, and I claim no responsibility for it. It is, however, convenient, and now widely used."
Gay, faggot, fag, pansy, and so on, are some examples of words used to refer to male homosexuality. They are, or were earlier, often considered derogatory, but in some cases homosexuals have adopted such words and changed the meaning to be more positive. Etymologically many such words refer to an argued effeminacy.
The seemingly neutral word "lesbian", for female homosexuals, has been seen as derogatory, by inhabitants of the Greek island Lesbos (from which the word derives), and who have campaigned against its use.
"Men who have sex with men" (MSM) is a term often used in HIV research, to describe a group of men that may not necessarily consider themselves to be homosexuals, but who have sex with men. The term includes groups such as male prostitutes.
At the end of 2014, the homosexual media lobby organization GLAAD issued a "GLAAD Media Reference Guide - Terms To Avoid". It proclaimed the term "homosexual" to be "offensive". "Because of the clinical history of the word "homosexual," it is aggressively used by anti-gay extremists to suggest that gay people are somehow diseased or psychologically/emotionally disordered". GLAAD proclaimed that "gay"/"lesbian" should be used instead.
GLAAD also banned "sexual preference" as "offensive" since it "suggest that being lesbian, gay or bisexual is a choice" and proclaimed that "sexual orientation" should be used instead.
Any reference to a "gay agenda" was banned completely. Instead, only detailed descriptions of advocacy regarding specific issues are allowed. Any reference to "special rights" for homosexuals was also banned completely. Instead, only references to "equal rights" are allowed. Any mention of an association between homosexuality and pedophilia was also banned completely, "except in direct quotes that clearly reveal the bias of the person quoted".
Some forms of homosexual behavior have been observed in some animal species, but exclusive or predominant homosexuality is rare in nature. The basic biological design of all species is heterosexual reproduction. In some cases, such behaviors are due to a lack of available opposite sex partners. It has even been argued that there are no clear examples of exclusive homosexuality in non-human wild animal species, if there are available partners of the opposite sex.
Endocrine disruptors affecting behaviors are possible causes of homosexual behaviors in animals and humans. Thus, homosexual behaviors in some animals that have been observed today are not necessarily typical and may not have occurred in earlier times with less impact from endocrine disruptors of human origin.
There are very few descriptions of homosexual behavior in traditional societies such as hunter-gatherer societies. These are the ones most similar to the societies in which humans spent almost all of their evolutionary history. The only exception are some related tribes on Papua New Guinea. This consist of apparently highly ritualized and culturally obligatory initiation rites for boys. As such, there is very little individual choice in participating. Depictions of sexual behavior are not uncommon in prehistoric art, such as cave paintings, but depictions of homosexual behaviors are nonexistent, or possibly rare if generously interpreting two unclear cave paintings as homosexual. This is in contrast with ethnographers having been able to document many not culturally approved behaviors, such as murder, theft, infanticide, and extramarital affairs.
Other non-modern, non-Western societies
The prevalence of homosexuality, as well as the practices/customs involving homosexuality, have been argued to have varied widely in different societies and to have sometimes changed quickly within societies, as cultures have changed.
Modern Western societies
The prevalence of homosexuality according to surveys is affected by the question(s) used by the surveys. This includes if asking for exclusive homosexuality, if asking for bisexual actions, or if asking for sometimes having felt an attraction towards persons from the opposite sex. The stated prevalence is also affected by possible time limits, such as "…in the past year."
Recent, high quality surveys have been stated to have reported a prevalence of more enduring homosexuality in approximately 2–4% of the population of Western countries. Sometimes higher numbers such as 10% are mentioned, but they have been criticized as not being based on representative samples. Exclusive homosexuality has been stated to be more common among men, while bisexuality has been stated to more common among women.
The largest survey ever done was made in the United States in 2012 and stated that 3.4% of adults self-identified as LGBT. For Whites the figure was 3.2%, for Hispanics 4.0%, for Asians 4.3%, and for Blacks 4.6%. For men the figure was 3.3% and for women 3.6%. The prevalence was higher for persons with low income and short education. LGBT women were as likely as non-LGBT women to have children under the age of 18 in their home, while LGBT men were half as likely as non-LGBT men to have children in their home. There was a large age difference. Persons aged 18 to 29 were more than three times as likely as seniors aged 65 and older to identify as LGBT (6.4% vs 1.9%). Also, in the 18 to 29 age group, the sex difference was particularly large (8.3% of women and 4.6% of men self-identified as LGBT).
A 2011 survey stated that studies in other Western countries have generally found lower self-identification than in the United States (1.2-2.1%). A 2012 study in the United Kingdom stated a self-identification prevalence of 1.5%. As in the US, the prevalence was much higher among younger persons. The prevalence for persons aged 16 to 24 was 2.6% and the prevalence for persons aged 65+ was 0.4%.
A politically correct interpretation of the age differences is that these simply reflect that younger persons feel comfortable admitting their homosexuality and that the real prevalence has not changed. Another explanation is increased prevalence of endocrine disruptors, which in particular affect the developing brain. Still another interpretation is that these increases are due to factors such as increasing pro-homosexual propaganda, which are causing more people to become homosexual. This propaganda may be particularly pervasive and influential in the United States and in particular among young women, who may be more conformist than men.
There is a much higher occurrence of homosexuality among those who have been raised in large cities, rather than in rural areas. The explanations may be similar to those proposed for the age differences.
Public perceptions of the prevalence of homosexuality
Homosexual activists have been accused of often deliberately citing misleading numbers regarding the prevalence of homosexuality (such as 10%), in order to gain more political influence. There has also been a greatly expanded presence of homosexuals in the mass media. Such propaganda may explain why surveys in the US have found that the general public greatly overestimates the prevalence of homosexuality and that these overestimates have become increasingly larger over time.
Furthermore, the media has been stated to stereotypically and incorrectly describe homosexuals as high income, highly educated, and White. The previously mentioned very large US study found the opposite of this media stereotype.
Causes of homosexuality
Numerous causes of homosexuality have been proposed and debated. This section does not intend to list all of them, but to mention some less politically correct arguments, often not mentioned in politically correct lists.
Hard-wired or not
Homosexual activists have often argued that homosexuality is unavoidably hard-wired, cannot be changed, and that pro-homosexual propaganda that may increase the prevalence of homosexuality actually only affects those who repress their homosexuality. Furthermore, if homosexuality is unavoidably hard-wired, then homosexuality will not become more common if homosexuals raise children or work with children.
Such hard-wiring could be caused both by genetic factors and by environmental factors. For example, external factors affecting the level of sex hormones during pregnancy could cause irreversible effects on the developing brain.
However, there are also several other possible explanations for homosexuality, as described in this section.
A large 2016 review study concluded that "The understanding of sexual orientation as an innate, biologically fixed property of human beings — the idea that people are “born that way” — is not supported by scientific evidence."
"Heritability" refers to the proportion of the variation of a trait in a studied group that is due to genetic factors. It can be estimated by using, for example, twin studies. Heritability refers to the figure at the time of the study, for the particular group studied, and the heritability figure may change if the balance between environmental and genetic factors changes for this group. For example, if the environment would become more similar for all members of the group, then the genetic factors would become relatively more important regarding differences and the heritability number would increase.
Studies of the heritability of homosexuality have given varying results, which may be due to large methodological differences between the studies. Many studies have been argued to have used problematic self-selected, opportunistic, and/or small population-based samples. A 2010 study in Sweden (regarding the years 2005-2006) stated that it was the largest study done and truly population based. It found a heritability of 34%-39% for men and 18%-19% for women. Sweden has a very homogeneous environment regarding homosexuality, which may have caused the heritability figures to be higher than in other places.
As a comparison, these heritability figures are equal to or lower than the heritability of many political attitudes. Political attitudes are generally considered to be quite changeable and many political organizations attempt to do so.
Others have argued for even lower heritability figures and in particular for adolescents.
Changes in sexual identity for homosexuals
Critics of hard-wiring have argued that about half of those with exclusive homosexuality move towards heterosexuality over a lifetime. Put another way, 3% of the practicing heterosexual population (both men and women) claim to have once been either bisexual or homosexual. These changes are not therapeutically induced, but happen “naturally” in life, some very quickly. Most changes in sexual orientation are towards exclusive heterosexuality. Numbers of people who have changed towards exclusive heterosexuality are greater than current numbers of bisexuals and exclusive homosexuals combined. In other words, “Ex-gays outnumber actual gays.”
The changes in sexual identity are particularly large among adolescents.
Fraternal birth order effect
The "fraternal birth order effect" refers to the observation that the more older brothers a man has, the greater the probability is that he will be homosexual. This is usually explained as mothers having a risk of becoming immunized to male-specific antigens with each male child. Maternal antibodies may then affect brain development, which may contribute to homosexuality.
- See also: Endocrine disruptors
However, a possible cause of homosexuality is differences regarding sex hormone levels during early development. Such differences may be caused by external factors, that, for example, may cause stress, which has effects on the hormone system. There are also external endocrine disruptors that have effects similar to those of sex hormones. Examples include drugs (like diethylstilbestrol), phytoestrogens that can be found in plants, and pollutants like DDT, PCB, and bisphenol A.
The argued single strongest predictor of later homosexual behavior is childhood "gender nonconformity". That is, phrased differently, effeminate behaviors for males and masculine behaviors for females. It has been argued that this is not just a reflection of biological factors, but may have a role in causing homosexuality.
This may imply that attempts to undermine the traditional gender roles during childhood may increase the prevalence of homosexuality.
There are some males who due to sexual differentiation disorders have been classified and raised as females. Studies on the sexual preferences of such individuals have sometimes been cited as evidence regarding the influence of gender roles on sexual preferences. However, the results have been argued to be very difficult to interpret and have been interpreted as both support for and as evidence against the importance of gender roles.
Dysfunctional family structure during childhood and adolescence
Maltreatment during childhood and adolescence
Homosexuality has been stated to be associated with sexual and other forms of psychological and physical maltreatment during childhood and adolescence. There are several possible explanations for this association:
- Already existing homosexual behaviors increase the risk of maltreatment.
- Already existing gender nonconforming behaviors, but not homosexual behaviors, increase the risk of maltreatment.
- Increased tendency to remember maltreatment, or interpret events as maltreatment, by homosexuals.
- The maltreatment causes homosexuality.
For example a 2013 study argued that maltreatment is a cause of homosexuality.
This could occur through several possible mechanisms:
- The maltreatment may cause loss of self-worth, feeling different from others, and stigmatization. The individual may therefore identify with stigmatized groups likes homosexuals.
- The sexual abuse of boys may "teach" homosexuality or cause the boys to believe that they are homosexuals.
- The sexual abuse of girls may cause them to be averse to sexual relationships with men.
- The maltreatment and stress may cause hormonal and other biological changes.
- The maltreatment may cause emotional numbing and therefore a preference for stronger stimuli, novelty-seeking, and risk-taking, which has been associated with homosexuality.
- The maltreatment may increase the risk of substance abuse, which may contribute to homosexuality by disinhibition.
- The maltreatment may cause depression, stress, anger and other negative moods, which may cause an increased drive for intimacy and sex, including homosexual.
- The maltreatment may increase the risk of borderline personality disorder, which is associated with non-heterosexual orientation.
- The maltreatment may cause individuals to leave their families and trade sex for housing, money and drugs. For males in particular, this may involve homosexual prostitution, and cause homosexuality through one of the above mentioned mechanisms.
Absence of available sex partners of the opposite sex
As previously mentioned, in non-human species homosexuality may be caused by an absence of available sex partners of the opposite sex. Such an effect has been argued also for humans, such as in prisons.
Homosexuality in itself, or at least exclusive homosexuality, would seem to imply reduced reproductive success for the homosexual as well as for the parents, who spend resources on their homosexual child without getting a reproductive return.
Possible evolutionary explanations include that the genes contributing to exclusive homosexuality in some persons would instead increase the reproductive success of relatives who do not become exclusively homosexual. Various mechanisms for such an effect have been speculated, such as the genes causing exclusive homosexuality in some males increasing fecundity/attractiveness of female or male relatives.
One possible evolutionary explanation is that homosexuals without children would instead direct their efforts towards the reproductive success of relatives. Research on this has been mixed, with research in Western countries failing to find support for the theory, although research in Samoa has found some support.
Another possible evolutionary explanation is that being bisexual would have some advantage over strict heterosexuality, although this requires an explanation for why not everyone is bisexual.
However, many of the proposed evolutionary explanations seem to imply that homosexuality, or at least exclusive homosexuality, in itself is an evolutionarily undesirable side effect. Furthermore, genetic/evolutionary factors are not very important causes of homosexuality, according to the above mentioned studies on heritability.
Similarities between homosexual men and heterosexual women
Aside from the sexual preference, there are also some other similarities between homosexual men and heterosexual women. Note that the following discussion refer to average group differences and that there are individuals who differ greatly from the group averages.
A 2003 literature review stated that homosexual males on average in childhood had a strong tendency for gender nonconforming behaviors (which also as stated above has been proposed as a cause of homosexuality). Similarly to females, on average homosexual males entered puberty earlier than heterosexual males. On various tests of mental abilities, they had on average scored similarly to females or intermediately. There was an increased preference for occupations traditionally preferred by females.
On the other hand, the preference regarding the degree of sexual partner variation was more similar to that of heterosexual men than heterosexual women.
Some brain structures differ between heterosexual men and heterosexual women. Homosexual men have in studies on average had similarities to heterosexual women, regarding some of these brain structures, but not regarding other.
The brain research, in particular an influential 1993 study, has often been cited by homosexual activists, as evidence for homosexuality being hard-wired, and criticized by those objecting to homosexuality being hard-wired. However, differences, like those reported in some studies regarding certain brain structures, are not necessarily due to genetics or proof of hard-wiring, but could also be explained as due to environmental factors, including possibilities such as growth of certain brain areas in direct response to learned sexual behaviors. Also, even when there are group differences regarding average values, this does not necessarily mean that it is possible to identify sexual orientation by, for example, measuring the volume of certain brain structure. This since the individual variability may be large and overlapping between groups.
See the article on Physiognomy on "Gaydar" and related topics.
Homosexuality as a disease
Homosexuality was earlier by official health organizations considered to be a disease/paraphilia/sexual perversion. Today homosexuality is no longer listed as a disease by official health organizations. In part, this occurred after intense lobbying by homosexual organizations. Arguments against homosexuality being a disease have included that the absence of heterosexual sexuality/reproduction by groups such as Catholic priests is not considered to be a disease, that homosexuality can be found in many human societies and in other animal species, that homosexuality may have evolutionary/genetic causes, and that studies have shown that homosexuality is not necessarily accompanied by reduced function and well-being.
Critics have argued that at least part of the evidence cited when delisting homosexuality was flawed and misrepresented by the American Psychological Association, when the organization made pro-homosexual lobbying.
Even homosexual activists admit that homosexuality is associated with increased risk of problems such as various mental health disorders and substance abuse. This raises the question if homosexuality should be seen as similar to medical conditions like hypertension that are not necessarily always accompanied by reduced function, but that increases the risk of various health problems.
Homosexual activists often dismiss any negative association with homosexuality, for homosexuals themselves or for other persons, as completely being caused by factors such as stress caused by persecution. However, there are many other possibilities. One is that confusion regarding gender identity may be stressful in itself. Another is that homosexuality may contribute to a lifestyle that may increase the risk of health problems, such as frequent visits to bars/clubs possibly increasing the risk of substance abuse. Still another is that if homosexuality is caused by some factor(s) affecting the brain regions involved in sexual behaviors, then these factors could possibly also affect other regions of the brain causing various, possibly negative, effects. More generally, whatever factors are causing homosexuality could also have other effects, including negative ones. In such a case, homosexuality itself would not be the cause of the problems associated with homosexuality but neither would persecution by society. Instead, homosexuality could be a symptom of the presence of a more general developmental disorder.
Homosexuality is associated with a variety of physical health issues.
Most well-known may be the association with HIV/AIDS. A 2012 study stated that the prevalence of HIV among "men who have sex with men" (MSM) was 25.4% in the Caribbean, 14.7% - 17.9% in Sub-Saharan Africa, North America, Latin America, and South and Southeast Asia, and 3% - 6.6% in the rest of the world. The HIV epidemics among MSM were stated be expanding in most countries.
A high frequency of unprotected anal sex and many sexual partners have been stated to increase the risk of HIV-infection for MSM. "Barebacking" refers to unprotected anal sex and has been stated to be common among young MSM in the US, despite a high risk for HIV-infection. Stated possible explanations include that HIV is no longer seen as a death sentence and that the behavior is seen as a form of defiance of norms and rules. In some areas, an increased use of drugs similar to amphetamine have been associated with more risky behaviors and an increased frequency of HIV-infection.
There are also "bug chasers", who want to become HIV-infected, and "gift givers", who want to infect "bug chasers". Stated possible reasons include a desire to no longer be afraid of becoming HIV-infected, a feeling of exclusion from the group of HIV-infected that may include friends and partners, the behavior is seen as a supporting a stigmatized group, safe sex is seen as an obstacle to spontaneous sex, and risky sex is considered exciting.
There is also an increased risk of several other sexual diseases. One example is hepatitis C, that greatly increases the risk of several severe liver diseases. Recent studies in several countries have found drastic increases in the frequency of the disease and described hepatitis C as a possible new epidemic among MSM. Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C is rare among non-MSM. However, it has been suggested, and several studies have found support for, that sexual behaviors that cause trauma to mucous membranes and consequent bleeding may be a transmission cause (such behaviors also increases the risk of other STDs). Such sexual behaviors include anal sex, fisting, rimming, enema, sex toys, group sex, and drugs that are applied to mucous membranes (such as in the nose). Also other STDs that cause wounds in mucous membranes may contribute as well as HIV-infection that suppresses the immune system. More effective new drugs against Hepatits C has been developed but are very costly.
"Gay bowel syndrome" is a term used to describe the various sexually transmitted anal and rectal diseases and sexual traumas and that related to anal sex.
A higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs have been reported for homosexuals of both sexes than for heterosexuals. Also various problems related to this has been reported.
A 2013 literature review stated that homosexuals/bisexuals as compared to heterosexuals had poorer general health and increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, allergies, arthritis, and chronic gastro-intestinal problems. There was also a higher prevalence and earlier onset of disabilities, such as use of a walking assistant. Homosexual men also had a higher risk of migraine headaches and urinary incontinence.
A large 2008 meta-analysis stated that homosexuals/bisexuals as compared to heterosexuals had increased risk for depression and anxiety disorders, alcohol and other substance dependence, and suicide attempt. The results were similar for both sexes, but female homosexuals/bisexuals had a particularly large risk for substance dependence, while male homosexuals/bisexuals had a particularly large risk for suicide attempt.
A 2010 twin study in Sweden stated that "Rates of depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), eating disorders, alcohol dependence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were increased among men and women with same-sex sexual experiences."
A higher frequency of bipolar disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and phobias have been reported for homosexual men as compared to heterosexual men.
Studies have also stated a higher frequency of psychotic symptoms and psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia in homosexuals. Also a higher frequency of certain personality disorders have been reported.
Causes of health differences
While homosexual activists often explain the health differences as due to causes such as stress caused by persecution there are also other possibilities.
A higher prevalence of substance abuse may contribute to health differences and may be caused by factors such as a subculture with many visits to bars/clubs. Sexually transmitted diseases increase the risks of certain cancers. Women never being pregnant have a higher risk of breast cancer. A high prevalence of stress and depression may have negative effects on the immune system. Also nutritional patterns may contribute.
Another possibility is differences regarding coping styles. A 2009 study found that homosexual men as compared to heterosexual men more strongly applied emotion-oriented and avoidance coping strategies. The more emotion-oriented coping was argued to be an explanation for health differences. Sexual orientation was not related to different coping styles for women.
If endocrine disruptors are factors contributing to homosexuality, then they may also possibly disrupt various organ systems and cause negative health effects.
Maltreatment in childhood/adolescence is associated with later homosexuality (see the section "Causes of homosexuality"). It is possible that this maltreatment at the same time could cause poorer health through mechanisms such as stress.
Gender nonconforming behaviors in general (not just homosexual) are associated with poorer health. One explanation is that such behaviors are associated with increased risk of maltreatment (including sexual abuse and bullying) by family members and other persons. Since homosexuality is associated with gender nonconforming behaviors in general (not just homosexual), then this may be an explanation for the poorer health of homosexuals. This could also mean that undermining the traditional gender roles of children/adolescents may increase the risk of maltreatment (and also may be a cause of homosexuality as noted in the section "Causes of homosexuality").
Homosexuality and pedophilia
Supporters of homosexuality have argued that studies using methods such as measuring the blood flow to the penis while watching pictures of children have shown that homosexuals in general are not attracted to children.
Regardless, there are also homosexual pedophiles. 2007 literature review stated that 9-40% of pedophiles are homosexuals, which is approximately 4 to 20 times higher than the rate of adult men attracted to other adult men.
Studies using self-report stated that heterosexual pedophiles on average reported abusing 5.2 children and committing 34 acts, homosexual pedophiles 10.7 children and 57 acts, and bisexual pedophiles 27.3 children and 120 acts. An anonymous study of non–incest-related pedophiles whose legal situations were resolved found much larger numbers. The study found that heterosexual pedophiles on average reported abusing 19.8 children and committing 23.2 acts, whereas homosexual pedophiles on average had abused 150.2 children and committed 281.7 acts. Homosexual pedophiles had higher recidivism rates than heterosexual pedophiles.
Most pedophiles were stated to not be exclusively attracted to children. A study of male pedophiles found that only 7% of male pedophiles stated that they were exclusively attracted to children.
The review also stated that homosexual pedophiles have a higher probability than heterosexual pedophiles of themselves having been abused as children.
More generally, a 2016 review stated that compared to heterosexuals, non-heterosexuals are about two to three times as likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse.
The Family Research Institute has cited studies such as the 1948 Kinsey survey, which stated that 37% of the gays admitted to sexual relations with under-17-year-olds. The Kinsey survey has been criticized as being non-representative, but homosexual activists have frequently cited other results from it. Family Research Institute has also cited other surveys stating high numbers as well as studies on teacher molestation stating that homosexuals were greatly over-represented.
The Family Research institute has also stated that the gay movement at least previously was "forthright about seeking to legitimize child-adult homosexual sex." For example, the North American Man/Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) was stated to have marched in many LGBT pride parades, with the stated goal of removing the barriers to man-boy sex.
NAMBLA was the first US organization to be a member of the "International Lesbian and Gay Association" (ILGA). In 1993, ILGA achieved United Nations consultative status. NAMBLA's membership of ILGA drew heavy criticism and caused the US to cut of some UN funding, the suspension and later expulsion of ILGA from the UN, and ILGA expelling NAMBLA. See also the article on the North American Man/Boy Love Association.
Children and homosexual parents
The well-being of children raised by homosexual parents as compared to heterosexual parents is a very controversial research field. Many studies have argued that there are no differences. Critics have argued that most or all of these studies have large methodological problems. These problems include being based on the opinions of the parents regarding their young children, rather than examining the outcomes of the children when they have reached adulthood. Another problem was that the studies mostly used non-random, non-representative data, often from small samples, recruited by methods such as advertising in women's bookstores, and that therefore cannot be generalized to the larger population of gay and lesbian families. Often these non-random samples consisted of white, middle-class homosexuals, but the results may then have been compared with studies using nationally representative heterosexual samples. Critics have also argued that newer and better studies have found more negative outcomes for children with homosexual parents.
One such study, a large 2012 study by Mark Regnerus, randomly selected and representative of the American population, examined the outcomes for children who had grown up in different family constellations, including homosexual ones. On a large number of social, emotional, and relational outcomes, the children who had grown up with two heterosexual parents did better than other children, even after controlling for differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, level of mother’s education, perceived family-of-origin’s income, experience with having been bullied as a youth, and the "gay friendliness" of the respondent’s current state of residence. Furthermore, while 90% of those growing up with two biological parents identified themselves as entirely heterosexual, only 61%/71% of the children to lesbian mothers/gay fathers did so. 2% of children growing up with two biological parents reported being ever being touched sexually by parents, while for children to lesbian mothers/gay fathers the numbers were 23%/6%.
Not surprisingly, the study was immediately and intensely attacked. The criticisms were widely reported in the politically correct media, but not the counter-criticisms by Regnerus and others.
A large 2013 Canadian study found much worse educational achievement for children with homosexual parents and in particular for girls.
Studies have found a higher risk for divorce and separations for homosexual relationships and in particular for lesbian relationships. An increased risk was found also when the relationship included children.
Violence and general criminality
United States data released in 2013 stated that homosexuals/bisexuals of both sexes, as compared to heterosexuals, experienced equal to much higher sexual and intimate partner violence during their lifetime. The study noted that "this report do not indicate whether violence occurs more often in same-sex or opposite sex couples", but it regardless described large group differences regarding "the prevalence of lifetime victimization of intimate partner violence, sexual violence and stalking".
A 2013 study stated that "The emergence of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) has demonstrated that IPV occurs in male-male partnerships at rates similar to or higher than opposite-sex partnerships. Recently, researchers have documented vastly varied, though universally high, rates of IPV among MSM: between 32–78% for any form of IPV, 12–45% for physical IPV, and 5–33% for sexual IPV". The study also stated large racial differences regarding intimate partner violence among homosexual/bisexual men.
The Family Research institute has argued for various connections between homosexuality and violence, such as violent sexual practices, homosexual rapes, deliberately infecting others with STDs, and over-representation as mass/serial murderers.
A 2005 study by a Family Research Institute researcher stated that homosexuals as compared to heterosexuals had increased risk of criminality. One explanation is more use of alcohol and drugs.
Argued pro-homosexual bias in research and statements on research
A study 2010 examined three different scientific articles on lesbian parenting. The articles had many similarities. However, one article likely had a better methodology than the other articles, but showed results more negative for lesbian parenting. This article was almost never cited by other articles, while the worse quality/pro-lesbian articles were cited extensively by other articles. This was argued to be possible evidence of a current pro-homosexual bias in the social sciences.
An earlier president of the American Psychological Association (APA), who himself contributed to delisting homosexuality as a disease, stated in 2012 that the organization had been taken over by "ultra-liberals" and that political ideology had become more important than science when APA made public statements on certain issues, such as homosexuality. Furthermore, white homosexuals were stated to be under-represented within the APA and homosexual activists were stated to have a large influence. Also other persons with earlier top positions within APA as well as other critics have made similar statements.
The author of a large 2016 review with some less politically correct findings stated that "I strongly support equality and oppose discrimination for the LGBT community, and I have testified on their behalf as a statistical expert. [...] In the course of writing this report, I consulted a number of individuals who asked that I not thank them by name. Some feared an angry response from the more militant elements of the LGBT community; others feared an angry response from the more strident elements of religiously conservative communities. Most bothersome, however, is that some feared reprisals from their own universities for engaging such controversial topics, regardless of the report’s content — a sad statement about academic freedom."
Conservatives, and even some liberals, have argued that the liberal Hollywood deliberately inserts homosexual propaganda in movies and television. Thus, in 1987 gay activists stated that "Where we talk is important. The visual media, film and television, are plainly the most powerful image-makers in Western civilization. The average American household watches over seven hours of TV daily. Those hours open up a gateway into the private world of straights, through which a Trojan horse might be passed … So far, gay Hollywood has provided our best covert weapon in the battle to desensitize the mainstream".
GLAAD (earlier an abbreviation for "Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation") is an influential American lobby organization that scrutinizes, influences, and censors depictions and descriptions of homosexuals in the media. Critics have argued that this is an important reason for pro-homosexual being more or less openly inserted in, for example, movies or TV series. Such deliberate propaganda has also been admitted by influential persons involved in well-known entertainment productions. Critics have also pointed to the article "The Overhauling of Straight America" (1987) and the book "After the Ball: How America Will Conquer Its Fear and Hatred of Gays in the ’90s" (1989), which described several propaganda techniques that could be used in order to change the public opinion on homosexuality. Critics have argued that many of these propaganda techniques have been used in the media.
In a 2013 speech, then United States Vice President Joe Biden stated that Jewish leaders in the media were in large part responsible for American acceptance of gay marriage. "I believe what affects the movements in America, what affects our attitudes in America are as much the culture and the arts as anything else [...] I bet you 85 percent of those changes, whether it’s in Hollywood or social media are a consequence of Jewish leaders in the industry [...] The influence is immense, the influence is immense."
Other political activism
Phrases such "Gay Mafia", "Velvet Mafia", and "Lavender Mafia" are pejorative terms for argued disproportional presence and influence of homosexuals in certain areas, notably in the arts and the entertainment industry.
A 2018 article stated that surveys had shown that "11 per cent of the BBC's workforce were lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender, 12 per cent of whom were in positions of leadership." Despite this, the BBC had decided to implement affirmative action policies in favor of lesbians and transgender, stated to be underrepresented in leadership positions, compared to other LGBT. No mention was made of affirmative action policies in favor of heterosexuals, despite the LGBT overrepresentation.
The first LGBT pride parade occurred in 1970 and such parades have thereafter become common.
Regarding Boasian anthropology, "some of Boaz’s most famous gentile followers were also at odds with American society: Margaret Mead was bisexual and Ruth Benedict was lesbian. Thus, “the Boazians shared an out-group sensibility, a commitment to a common viewpoint and a program to dominate the institutional structure of anthropology.”"
Queer theory is a critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s, out of the fields of queer studies (LGBT studies) and women's studies. It is characterized by gender denialism (compare race denialism). Adherents are often particularly radical ivory tower academics and queer theory can be seen as analogous to the position of radical feminism within the feminist movement, although queer theorists are arguably even more radical. Queer theorists sometimes oppose the demands by other LGBT people, such as same-sex marriage, since it would supposedly stigmatize other types of relationships.
Several very wealthy Jews and/or homosexuals/homosexual supporters have been argued to try to influence the Republican Party in the United States to become more supportive of homosexuality.
Wikipedia appears to be completely dominated by pro-LGBT activists.
Homosexuals and mass immigration
Homosexuals are often a particularly strange part of Islamo-leftism, with homosexual organizations often supporting the mass immigration, despite this meaning a rapidly growing number of Islamists and other immigrants with far harsher views than Christian conservatives on homosexuality and on what society should do.
However, this support may be changing, as it becomes increasingly harder to deny the Islamist threat. In France, a 2015 survey found a dramatic increase in support for the Front National among homosexual and bisexual voters, since the French presidential elections in 2012. It showed, for instance, that in Paris 26 per cent of homosexuals supported Front National, compared with 16 per cent of heterosexuals. In Germany, a 2016 survey by a monthly magazine for homosexual men showed that 17% of respondents openly supported Alternative for Germany, higher than the national average.
See also Islamization and anti-Islamization: Opinion surveys of Muslims on views on homosexuals.
Opposition to homosexuality
Opposition to homosexuality is common in many cultures and religions. Homosexuality has often been seen as a crime against the natural/religious order and the proscribed punishment has often been very severe.
One example is that Tacitus in his Germania stated that "In the assembly it is allowed to present accusations, and to prosecute capital offences. Punishments vary according to the quality of the crime. Traitors and deserters they hang upon trees. Cowards, and sluggards, and unnatural prostitutes they smother in mud and bogs under a heap of hurdles. Such diversity in their executions has this view, that in punishing of glaring iniquities, it behoves likewise to display them to sight; but effeminacy and pollution must be buried and concealed." The "unnatural prostitutes" (Latin: "corpore infames") are argued to be homosexuals.
Other examples include the Jewish Bible in Leviticus 20:13: "If a man has sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They are to be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads." Another the Aztec empire proscribing torture and death for homosexuals.
Today homosexuality is prohibited in many non-Western countries, with the punishment in some non-Western countries including life imprisonment or the death penalty.
A 2013 global survey found that large parts of the populations in many countries stated that society should not accept homosexuality. The most positive views were found in Western countries, but even here there were large minorities stating that society should not accept homosexuality. Presumably, there were also groups that had various negative but less severe views on homosexuality.
Such widespread and severe views on homosexuality may suggest a genetic/evolutionary cause for the aversion. Such an explanation has been proposed in the scientific literature. Homosexuality is associated with reduced reproductive success. Therefore, if homosexual behavior is at least partly learned, in particular during childhood, then it should be evolutionary beneficial for parents to keep homosexuals from associating with their children. Thus, testable predictions are that aversion against homosexuals should be particularly strongly felt by parents and when homosexuals are likely to be in contact with children. These predictions have been experimentally confirmed. The results have been argued to exclude general "xenophobia" as an explanation for aversion against homosexuality.
Homosexuals and the Holocaust
Views on homosexuality by various websites
Homosexuality is rejected by various religions and conservatives. Consequently, large amounts of criticisms can be found in such sources. For example Conservapedia has a large number of pages dedicated to religious as well as non-religious criticisms, with sources, regarding areas such infectious diseases, physical health, mental health, substance abuse, crime, pedophilia, lobbying, coverage in media, history, and other topics. The liberal views can similarly be found in liberal sources, such as Wikipedia. See the links below in the "External links" section.
Criticisms by religious organizations tend to ignore evolutionary arguments and criticisms, since they often deny evolution.
- Homosexuality and the Catholic Church
- Homosexual marriage
- LGBT pride parade
- Oppression Olympics
- The Alt-Right and the Homosexual Question — Part 1
- The Alt-Right and the Homosexual Question — Part 2
- The Alt-Right and the Homosexual Question — Part 3
- Family Research Institute
- Homosexuality and the scientific evidence: Summary
- Homosexuality on Conservapedia.
- Myth of the Acceptance of Homosexuality in Ancient Hellas
- Report: Paedophilia More Common Among ‘Gays’
- Herzer M. Kertbeny and the Nameless Love. Volume 12, Issue 1, 1986. Journal of Homosexuality. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3913702
- Homosexual. Etymology Online. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=homosexual&allowed_in_frame=0
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7376919.stm, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jun/10/gayrights.greece
- GLAAD Media Reference Guide - Terms To Avoid http://www.glaad.org/reference/offensive
- Kanazawa S (2012) Intelligence and homosexuality. J Biosoc Sci 44 (5):595-623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932011000769
- Julien Barthes, Bernard Godelle, Michel Raymond, Human social stratification and hypergyny: toward an understanding of male homosexual preference, Evolution and Human Behavior, Volume 34, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages 155-163, ISSN 1090-5138, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.01.001
- Balthazart J (2011) Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation. Endocrinology 152 (8):2937-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2011-0277
- Homosexuality and the scientific evidence: Summary. http://www.mygenes.co.nz/summary.htm
- Cantor JM (2012 Is homosexuality a paraphilia? The evidence for and against. Arch Sex Behav 41 (1):237-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9900-3
- How Many People are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender?. 2011. http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/research/census-lgbt-demographics-studies/how-many-people-are-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender/
- Gary J. Gates and Frank Newport. Special Report: 3.4% of U.S. Adults Identify as LGBT. October 18, 2012. http://www.gallup.com/poll/158066/special-report-adults-identify-lgbt.aspx
- Statistical bulletin: Key Findings from the Integrated Household Survey: January 2012 to December 2012 (Experimental Statistics). Part of Integrated Household Survey, January to December 2012 Released: 03 October 2013. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/integrated-household-survey/integrated-household-survey/january-to-december-2012/stb-integrated-household-survey-january-to-december-2012.html
- Frisch M, Hviid A (2006) Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes. Arch Sex Behav 35 (5):533-47. DOI:10.1007/s10508-006-9062-2 http://pubmed.gov/17039403
- How Many Gay People Are There In America? Nope — You’re Wrong http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/press/how-many-gay-people-are-there-in-america-nope-youre-wrong/
- Poll: Americans massively overestimate prevalence of homosexuality. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/poll-americans-massively-overestimate-prevalence-of-homosexuality
- Lawrence S. Mayer, "Preface," Sexuality and Gender: Findings from the Biological, Psychological, and Social Sciences, The New Atlantis, Number 50, Fall 2016, pp. 4-6. http://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/preface-sexuality-and-gender
- Långström N, Rahman Q, Carlström E, Lichtenstein P (2010) Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: a population study of twins in Sweden. Arch Sex Behav 39 (1):75-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-008-9386-1
- Alford, John; Carolyn Funk; John Hibbing (2005). "Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted?" American Political Science Review 99 (2): 153–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017%2Fs0003055405051579
- Anthony F. Bogaert, Malvina Skorska, Sexual orientation, fraternal birth order, and the maternal immune hypothesis: A review, Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Volume 32, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 247-254, ISSN 0091-3022, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2011.02.004.
- Hines M (2011) Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior. Front Neuroendocrinol 32 (2):170-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2011.02.006
- Quinsey VL (2003) The etiology of anomalous sexual preferences in men. Ann N Y Acad Sci 989 ():105-17; discussion 144-53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12839890
- Rice WR, Friberg U, Gavrilets S (2012) Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development. Q Rev Biol 87 (4):343-68. http://pubmed.gov/23397798
- Fang H, Tong W, Branham WS, Moland CL, Dial SL, Hong H et al. (2003) Study of 202 natural, synthetic, and environmental chemicals for binding to the androgen receptor. Chem Res Toxicol 16 (10):1338-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx030011g
- Bem DJ (2000) Exotic becomes erotic: interpreting the biological correlates of sexual orientation. Arch Sex Behav 29 (6):531-48. http://pubmed.gov/11100261
- Daryl J. Bem PhD. IIs There a Causal Link Between Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Adult Homosexuality? Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health. Volume 12, Issue 1-2, 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J529v12n01_05
- Roberts AL, Glymour MM, Koenen KC (2013) Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood? Arch Sex Behav 42 (2):161-71. http://pubmed.gov/22976519
- Yang X, Attané I, Li S, Zhang Q (2012) On same-sex sexual behaviors among male bachelors in rural China: evidence from a female shortage context. Am J Mens Health 6 (2):108-19. http://pubmed.gov/21816858
- Yang X, Attané I, Li S, Yang B (2012) Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China. Am J Mens Health 6 (6):485-96. http://pubmed.gov/22782362
- Paul L. Vasey, David S. Pocock, Doug P. VanderLaan, Kin selection and male androphilia in Samoan fa'afafine, Evolution and Human Behavior, Volume 28, Issue 3, May 2007, Pages 159-167, ISSN 1090-5138, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2006.08.004
- Homosexual Brains? Family Research Institute. http://www.familyresearchinst.org/2009/02/homosexual-brains/
- Cameron P & Cameron K (2012) Re-examining Evelyn Hooker: Setting the record straight with comments on Schumm’s (2012) reanalysis. Marriage and Family Review, 48: 491-523. http://www.familyresearchinst.org/2012/10/re-examining-evelyn-hooker-setting-the-record-straight/
- Cameron P & Cameron K (1988) Did the American Psychological Association misrepresent scientific material to the U.S. Supreme Court? Psychological Reports, 63: 255-270. http://www.familyresearchinst.org/2012/10/did-the-american-psychological-association-misrepresent-scientific-material-to-the-u-s-supreme-court/
- Beyrer C, Baral SD, van Griensven F, Goodreau SM, Chariyalertsak S, Wirtz AL et al. (2012) Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. Lancet 380 (9839):367-77. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60821-6 http://pubmed.gov/22819660
- Barker, M. R. (2008) "Gay and Lesbian Health Disparities: Evidence and Recommendations for Elimination," Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 6. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jhdrp/vol2/iss2/6
- Gabriella H. Breifeller and Amar Kanekar. Intentional Hiv Transmission Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Scoping Review. Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2012. Australian Psychological Society. http://committeehub.groups.aps.stage.roadhouse.com.au/Assets/Files/GLIP%20Review%20Vol%208%20No%202.pdf
- Urbanus AT, van Houdt R, van de Laar TJ, Coutinho RA (2009) Viral hepatitis among men who have sex with men, epidemiology and public health consequences. Euro Surveill 14 (47):. http://pubmed.gov/19941800
- Bradshaw D, Matthews G, Danta M (2013) Sexually transmitted hepatitis C infection: the new epidemic in MSM? Curr Opin Infect Dis 26 (1):66-72. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835c2120 http://pubmed.gov/23242342
- Price of new hepatitis C drug questioned by U.S. medical experts. http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/price-of-new-hepatitis-c-drug-questioned-by-u-s-medical-experts-1.2568495
- Minority Stress and Physical Health Among Sexual Minorities. David J. Lick, Laura E. Durso, Kerri L. Johnson. October 2013. The Williams Institute. http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/research/health-and-hiv-aids/minority-stress-and-physical-health-among-sexual-minorities/
- King M, Semlyen J, Tai SS, Killaspy H, Osborn D, Popelyuk D et al. (2008) A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry 8 ():70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-8-70 http://pubmed.gov/18706118
- Frisell T, Lichtenstein P, Rahman Q, Långström N (2010) Psychiatric morbidity associated with same-sex sexual behaviour: influence of minority stress and familial factors. Psychol Med 40 (2):315-24. DOI:10.1017/S0033291709005996 http://pubmed.gov/19460186
- Sandfort TG, de Graaf R, Bijl RV, Schnabel P (2001) Same-sex sexual behavior and psychiatric disorders: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Arch Gen Psychiatry 58 (1):85-91. http://pubmed.gov/11146762
- Bolton SL, Sareen J (2011) Sexual orientation and its relation to mental disorders and suicide attempts: findings from a nationally representative sample. Can J Psychiatry 56 (1):35-43. http://pubmed.gov/21324241
- Gevonden MJ, Selten JP, Myin-Germeys I, de Graaf R, ten Have M, van Dorsselaer S et al. (2014) Sexual minority status and psychotic symptoms: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Studies (NEMESIS). Psychol Med 44 (2):421-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713000718
- Sexual minorities vulnerable to psychosis? http://blog.journals.cambridge.org/2013/05/sexual-minorities-vulnerable-to-psychosis/
- Sandfort TG, Bakker F, Schellevis F, Vanwesenbeeck I (2009) Coping styles as mediator of sexual orientation-related health differences. Arch Sex Behav 38 (2):253-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-007-9233-9 http://pubmed.gov/17899350
- Zietsch BP, Verweij KJ, Bailey JM, Wright MJ, Martin NG (2011) Sexual orientation and psychiatric vulnerability: a twin study of neuroticism and psychoticism. Arch Sex Behav 40 (1):133-42. DOI:10.1007/s10508-009-9508-4 http://pubmed.gov/19588238
- Zietsch BP, Verweij KJ, Heath AC, Madden PA, Martin NG, Nelson EC et al. (2012) Do shared etiological factors contribute to the relationship between sexual orientation and depression?] Psychol Med 42 (3):521-32. DOI:10.1017/S0033291711001577 http://pubmed.gov/21867592
- Rieger G, Savin-Williams RC (2012) Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being. Arch Sex Behav 41 (3):611-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-011-9738-0
- Roberts AL, Rosario M, Corliss HL, Koenen KC, Austin SB (2012) Childhood gender nonconformity: a risk indicator for childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress in youth. Pediatrics 129 (3):410-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-1804
- Andrea L. Roberts, Margaret Rosario, Natalie Slopen, Jerel P. Calzo, S. Bryn Austin, Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Bullying Victimization, and Depressive Symptoms Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 52, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 143-152, ISSN 0890-8567, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.11.006
- Ryan C.W. Hall, Richard C.W. Hall, A Profile of Pedophilia: Definition, Characteristics of Offenders, Recidivism, Treatment Outcomes, and Forensic Issues, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Volume 82, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 457-471, ISSN 0025-6196, 10.4065/82.4.457. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025619611610744
- Paul Cameron. Child Molestation and Homosexuality. Family Research Institute. http://www.familyresearchinst.org/2009/02/child-molestation-and-homosexuality-2/
- Loren Marks, Same-sex parenting and children’s outcomes: A closer examination of the American psychological association’s brief on lesbian and gay parenting, Social Science Research, Volume 41, Issue 4, July 2012, Pages 735-751, ISSN 0049-089X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.03.006
- Mark Regnerus. Lesbian Mothers’ Children. Is it time to retire the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study? November 12, 2012 3:00 AM. National Review Online. http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/333193/lesbian-mothers-children-mark-regnerus
- Mark Regnerus, How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study, Social Science Research, Volume 41, Issue 4, July 2012, Pages 752-770, ISSN 0049-089X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.03.009
- Mark Regnerus, Parental same-sex relationships, family instability, and subsequent life outcomes for adult children: Answering critics of the new family structures study with additional analyses, Social Science Research, Volume 41, Issue 6, November 2012, Pages 1367-1377, ISSN 0049-089X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.08.015
- Walter R. Schumm, Methodological decisions and the evaluation of possible effects of different family structures on children: The new family structures survey (NFSS), Social Science Research, Volume 41, Issue 6, November 2012, Pages 1357-1366, ISSN 0049-089X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.08.011
- A Social Scientific Response To The Regnerus Controversy. http://www.baylorisr.org/2012/06/a-social-scientific-response-to-the-regnerus-controversy/
- Douglas W. Allen. High school graduation rates among children of same-sex households. Review of Economics of the Household December 2013, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 635-658. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11150-013-9220-y
- CDC: Lesbian, gay domestic violence rates same or higher than heterosexuals. The GA Voice. January 25, 2013. http://thegavoice.com/cdc-lesbian-gay-domestic-violence-rates-same-or-higher-than-heterosexuals/
- CDC releases data on interpersonal and sexual violence by sexual orientation. January 25, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p0125_NISVS.html
- Stephenson R, Finneran C (2013) The IPV-GBM Scale: A New Scale to Measure Intimate Partner Violence among Gay and Bisexual Men. PLoS ONE 8(6): e62592. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0062592
- Violence and Homosexuality. Family Resarch Institute. http://www.familyresearchinst.org/2009/02/violence-and-homosexuality/
- Cameron P, Landess T, Cameron K (2005) Homosexual sex as harmful as drug abuse, prostitution, or smoking. Psychol Rep 96 (3 Pt 2):915-61. http://pubmed.gov/16173359
- Schumm WR (2010) Evidence of pro-homosexual bias in social science: citation rates and research on lesbian parenting. Psychol Rep 106 (2):374-80. http://pubmed.gov/20524536
- Former president of APA says organization controlled by ‘gay rights’ movement. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/former-president-of-apa-says-organization-controlled-by-gay-rights-movement
- Noted U.S. Psychologists Condemn Gay Activist Influence on APA. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive/ldn/1951/22/5122008
- Therapists: APA gay ‘marriage’ declaration based on politics, not science. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/therapists-apa-gay-marriage-declaration-based-on-politics-not-science
- APA Appoints Gay Activists to Monitor Homosexual Reorientation Therapy. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive/ldn/1970/62/7062201
- The real gay agenda is on your TV and movie screens. June 30, 2011. Gay Christian Movement Watch. http://www.gcmwatch.com/7409/the-real-gay-agenda-is-on-your-tv-and-movie-screens
- Censoring the 'Anti-Gay' Viewpoint http://cnsnews.com/blog/l-brent-bozell-iii/censoring-anti-gay-viewpoint
- The Gay Playbook, And How It's 'Overhauling' America. http://cnsnews.com/blog/pete-winn/gay-playbook-and-how-its-overhauling-america
- Biden: Jewish leaders helped gay marriage succeed. May 22, 2013. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-politics/wp/2013/05/22/biden-jewish-leaders-helped-gay-marriage-succeed/
- Wright, P. J. and Bae, S. (2013), Pornography Consumption and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: A National Longitudinal Study. Human Communication Research, 39: 492–513. doi: 10.1111/hcre.12009 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/hcre.12009/abstract
- Paul J. Wright, Robert S. Tokunaga, Soyoung Bae. (2014), Pornography Consumption and US Adults' Attitudes toward Gay Individuals' Civil Liberties, Moral Judgments of Homosexuality, and Support for Same-Sex Marriage: Mediating and Moderating Factors. Communication Monographs. Vol. 81, Iss. 1, 2014. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03637751.2013.871048#tabModule
- Nearly two million Britons expected to question their gender, health boss warns NHS https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/06/04/nearly-two-million-britons-expected-question-gender-health-boss/
- Science Strikes Back https://www.amren.com/news/2018/07/race-reality-of-human-differences-sarich-miele/
- Colin Wilson. Queer theory and politics. Issue: 132. Posted: 11 October 11. International Socialism. http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=759&issue=132
- Jewish, Republican, pro-gay rights http://www.jta.org/2011/05/14/news-opinion/the-telegraph/jewish-republican-pro-gay-rights
- Meet the billionaire hedge fund manager quietly shaping the GOP gay marriage debate http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2013/05/03/meet-the-billionaire-hedge-fund-manager-quietly-shaping-the-gop-gay-marriage-debate/
- 2 Wall Street Moguls Champion Gay Rights http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/wall-street-talks-gay-rights-at-davos/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0
- How Marine Le Pen is winning France’s gay vote. 24 January 2015. The Spectator. http://www.spectator.co.uk/features/9420662/how-marine-le-pen-is-winning-frances-gay-vote/
- The gay men turning to the far right in Germany http://edition.cnn.com/2017/09/14/europe/germany-far-right-lgbt-support/index.html
- Germania by Tacitus. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb. Chapter 12: Justice. http://www.romansonline.com/Src_Frame.asp?DocID=Ger_Bk01_12
- David F. Greenberg, The construction of homosexuality, p. 242 f.
- 16. Homosexuality Carried the Death Penalty https://historycollection.com/facts-about-how-the-aztec-culture-handled-their-desires/
- The Global Divide on Homosexuality. June 4, 2013. Pew Research. http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/
- Gordon G. Gallup Jr., Have attitudes toward homosexuals been shaped by natural selection?, Ethology and Sociobiology, Volume 16, Issue 1, January 1995, Pages 53-70, ISSN 0162-3095, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(94)00028-6.
- Gordon G. Gallup Jr., Attitudes toward homosexuals and evolutionary theory: The role of evidence, Ethology and Sociobiology, Volume 17, Issue 4, July 1996, Pages 281-284, ISSN 0162-3095, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(96)00042-8.