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Civil rights movement
The civil rights movement often refer to a movement in the United States during the late 1950s through the 1960s that opposed racial segregation and racial discrimination. The name can be seen as unclear or ambiguous, as there have been many other movement that have argued for various rights for various groups.
One of the major aspects was to replace forced racial segregation with forced racial mixing. Examples include forced busing of children in order to have forced mixed school classes, affirmative action programs, and so on.
Notable legislation during this period were passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that restored and protected voting rights; and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.
However, it was the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965 that dramatically opened the United States to mass immigration of non-Whites.
Less politically correct views are that the "Black" civil rights movement was influenced by other groups such as Jewish and Communist organizations seeking to advance their own interests, that the changes caused large White flight, that the mass immigration of Hispanics has had negative effects on Black unemployment, that a Black middle class has gained from changes such as affirmative action but that the situation for other Blacks have deteriorated on many variables since the 1950s, that Whites now are discriminated in education and employment, and many other effects.
A related aspect was a "war on poverty" and various benefit programs, aimed at poor Blacks in particular. One example is the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO). They have been argued to be failures, aside from the artificial jobs created in order to administrate the programs. Blacks slums were not eliminated as intended.
"As far back as 1944, when Gunnar Myrdal wrote ‘’An American Dilemma’’, he was worried about a 16 percent illegitimacy rate among southern blacks, which was then eight times the white rate. Today, nearly two thirds of all black children are born to single mothers (the figure for whites has risen to 15 percent), and if there is a single statistic that sums up the plight of American blacks today, this is it."
Other variables that have worsened greatly for Blacks, compared to the situation before the civil rights movement, include the Black unemployment rate and the incarceration rate of Black men who did not complete high school.
A 2010 study argued that the large Hispanic immigration to the United States has displaced Blacks from low-skilled jobs, which has caused effects such as increased Black unemployment and increased Black violent crime.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Why Do We Have an Underclass? https://www.amren.com/news/2017/02/great-migration-nicholas-lemann-review-promised-land/
- ↑ How the Department of Labor Undermined the Black Community https://www.amren.com/news/2018/08/how-the-department-of-labor-undermined-the-black-community/
- ↑ Edward S. Shihadeh and Raymond E. Barranco. Latino Employment and Black Violence: The Unintended Consequence of U.S. Immigration Policy Social Forces (2010) 88 (3): 1393-1420 doi:10.1353/sof.0.0286 http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/88/3/1393.abstract