Civil Rights Movement
The phrase the Civil Rights Movement often refer to a movement in the United States, especially during the 1950s through the 1960s, that opposed racial segregation and claimed racial discrimination. The name can be seen as unclear or ambiguous, as there have been many other movements that have argued for various rights for various groups.
One of the major aspects was to replace forced racial segregation with forced racial mixing, such as forced busing of children in order to have forced mixed school classes, and so on.
Notable legislation during this period were:
- Brown v. Board of Education (1954) was a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, stating that state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality. See also the "External links" section on this decision.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations. See affirmative action.
- The Voting Rights Act of 1965 that restored and protected voting rights. See Reconstruction era on voting restrictions in the South, which were not explicitly race based and also affected Whites, such as payment of poll taxes and passing of literacy tests.
- Loving v. Virginia (1967) was a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, stating that state anti-miscegenation laws are unconstitutional. See also effects of race mixing.
- The Fair Housing Act of 1968 that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. See White flight on "Blockbusting" practices.
- The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. See White demographics and the section "United States" on the mass immigration of non-Whites.
Influences and effects
Less politically correct views are that the "Black" Civil Rights Movement was influenced by other groups such as Jewish and Communist organizations seeking to advance their own interests. See also Martin Luther King and National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Other less politically correct views are that the changes caused large White flight, that the mass immigration of Hispanics has had negative effects on Black unemployment, that a Black middle class has gained from changes such as affirmative action but that the situation for other Blacks have deteriorated on many variables since the 1950s, that Whites now are discriminated in education and employment, and many other effects.
A related aspect was a "war on poverty" and various benefit programs, aimed at poor Blacks in particular. One example is the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO). They have been argued to be failures, aside from the artificial jobs created in order to administrate the programs. Blacks slums were not eliminated as intended.
"As far back as 1944, when Gunnar Myrdal wrote ‘’An American Dilemma’’, he was worried about a 16 percent illegitimacy rate among southern blacks, which was then eight times the white rate. Today, nearly two thirds of all black children are born to single mothers (the figure for whites has risen to 15 percent), and if there is a single statistic that sums up the plight of American blacks today, this is it."
Other variables that have worsened greatly for Blacks, compared to the situation before the Civil Rights Movement, include the Black unemployment rate and the incarceration rate of Black men who did not complete high school.
A 2010 study argued that the large Hispanic immigration to the United States has displaced Blacks from low-skilled jobs, which has caused effects such as increased Black unemployment and increased Black violent crime.
"Research by black psychologist, Kenneth Clark, fit perfectly into this thinking. He had found that many black children who attended segregated schools preferred white dolls to black ones when given a choice. This, he argued, proved that segregation lowered the self-image of black children, and was an important cause of black failure. [...] Kenneth Clark’s famous doll studies, which the justices cited in their decision, were presented in a deliberately deceptive way. By 1954, Clark had already discovered that Massachusetts blacks attending integrated schools chose a white doll over a black doll more often than did southern blacks attending segregated schools. He refrained from telling the Supreme Court about this because if his doll studies showed anything at all, it was that segregation was good for blacks. Needless to say, Clark’s dishonesty is rarely pointed out, and the illusions he helped promote have remained largely unshaken." Furthermroe, "First, it appears that segregation did not stunt black self-esteem. Blacks generally show higher self-esteem than whites and, if anything, integration lowers it. Second, careful comparisons by region showed that by the early 1960s black schools were not being slighted. Facilities, staff, and textbooks were largely equal, and the small differences to be found could favor blacks as often as whites. Third, integration does not improve race relations, as the sociologists swore it would." See also Other race differences: Self-esteem and narcissism and Contact hypothesis.
One early view was that the measured US Black-White IQ gap was caused by the segregated schools. However, the 1954 Supreme Court decision against segregated schooling and the consequent nationwide program of school busing did not cause the gap to disappear. See also Magic dirt and Race and intelligence: The genetics or not debate: Socioeconomic factors.
- Martin Luther King
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
- Contact hypothesis
- 1960s counter-culture
- The Fight Against Integration
- Brown v. Board: the Real Story
- Why Do We Have an Underclass?
- Looking Back at School Desegregation
- Why Do We Have an Underclass? https://www.amren.com/news/2017/02/great-migration-nicholas-lemann-review-promised-land/
- How the Department of Labor Undermined the Black Community https://www.amren.com/news/2018/08/how-the-department-of-labor-undermined-the-black-community/
- Edward S. Shihadeh and Raymond E. Barranco. Latino Employment and Black Violence: The Unintended Consequence of U.S. Immigration Policy Social Forces (2010) 88 (3): 1393-1420 doi:10.1353/sof.0.0286 http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/88/3/1393.abstract
- Looking Back at School Desegregation https://www.amren.com/news/2019/05/school-desegregation-forced-justice-david-armor/