Malcolm X

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Malcolm X

Malcolm X, original name Malcolm Little, Muslim name el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz 19 May 1925 - 21 February 1965), was a Islamic Black Nationalist and spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Despite the fact that he is best known for his Black-chauvinism, Malcolm X was a quarter European in ancestry and had reddish-hair, as his maternal grandfather was surnamed Norton from England. Malcolm X's mother was the result of an affair between Norton and a Grenadan woman named Gertrude Langdon. He once called for a "blacks-only" state in the United States[1].


George Lincoln Rockwell at a Nation of Islam meeting in 1962. Behind him are Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X.

Malcolm X was born in Omaha, Nebraska, United States to His father, Earl Little, Who Was a member of the Universal Black Improvement Association. In 1926 the Little's Moved to Michigan When in 1931 His Father Was Killed and ran over by a streetcar. During this time, many in the local black community Accused the Black Legion of murdering Earl Little.In 1943 Malcolm moved to New York City and after some time in Harlem he became involved in drug dealing, gambling, racketeering, robbery and steering prostitutes. During this time, his friends and acquaintances call him "Detroit Red". Between 1943 and 1946, when he was arrested and jailed in Massachusetts, Malcolm drifted between' Boston and New York City three more times. When Malcolm was examined for the WWII draft, military classified physicians considered him to be "mentally disqualified for military service." He explained in his autobiography that "I put on a display to avoid the draft by telling the officer examining that I could not wait to 'kill Some crackers.'" His approach worked; historical Classification Not Ensure I would be draft.

In early 1946, Malcolm return to Boston. On January 12, "I Was Arrested for Burglary trying to steal a stolen watch I HAD left for repairs at a jewelry shop." Two Days Later, Malcolm Was Indict for Carrying Firearms. On January 16 He Was charged with Grand Larceny and Breaking and Entering. Malcolm Was Sentenced to eight to ten years in Massachusetts State Prison.

On 27 February, Malcolm began historical serving sentence at the Massachusetts State Prison in Charlestown. While in prison, Malcolm earned the nickname of "Satan" for His vitriolic hatred Towards the Bible, God and religion in general. Malcolm met a self-educated man named Bimbi, Who convinces him to educate Himself. Malcolm developed to appetite for reading, much of it after-the prison lights HAD Been Turned Off. In 1948, Malcolm Received a letter from His brother, Philbert, telling him about the Nation of Islam. Malcolm wasn't interested in Joining Until His brother sent him a letter Reginald In Which I wrote, "Malcolm, do not eat any more pork and do not smoke any more cigarettes. I'll show you how to get out of prison."

For the remainder of His incarceration, Malcolm Maintained regular contact with Elijah Muhammad, the group's leader. Malcolm started to gain fame Among the Prisoners Remain But Also under the eye of the Authorities. He Was denied a possible early release after-five years.

In February 1948, mostly Through his sister's efforts, Malcolm Was Transferred to an experimental prison in Norfolk, Massachusetts, facility That Had a much larger library. Later Malcolm Reflected on historical time in prison: "Months Passed Without My Even thinking about Being Imprisoned. In Fact, up to Then, I Had Never Been Truly so free in my life." On August 7, 1952, Malcolm Was Received parole and released from prison.

From historical adoption of the Nation of Islam in 1952 Until I left the organization in 1964, Malcolm Promoted the Nation's Teachings. "I Referred to whites as 'devils' who HAD Been created in a misguided breeding program by a black scientist, and Predicted the inevitable (and Imminent) return of blacks to natural Their place at the top of the social order."

Tensions increased Between Malcolm and the Nation of Islam. It Was Alleged That leaders of the Nation of Islam gave orders to "destroy" Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X says as early as 1963, a member of the Seventh Temple confessed to HAVING Received orders from the Nation of Islam to kill him.

On 20 March 1964, Life published a photograph of Malcolm holding an M1 Carbine and pulling back the curtains to peer out of the window of His family's home. The Photo Was Taken in connection with Malcolm's declaration That he would Defend Himself and his family from the daily death-threats Which they were Receiving. Undercover FBI informants Officials Warned That he HAD Been Marked for Assassination.

In June 1964, the NOI Sued to reclaim Malcolm's home in Queens, Which They Claim belonged to the organization. The suit Was Successful, and Malcolm and His Family Were ordered to vacate the house. On February 14, 1965, The Night Before it was Scheduled to POSTPONE the Eviction hearing date, the house burned to the ground. Malcolm and His family survived and no one Was charged with any crime.


On 21 February 1965 in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, Malcolm was delivering a speech that had just begun When a disturbance broke out in the crowd of 400. A man yelled:

"Get your hand outta my pocket! Do not be messin 'with my pockets!"

As Malcolm and his bodyguards moved to quiet the disturbance, a man rushed forward and shot Malcolm in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun. Two other men charged the stage and fired handguns at Malcolm, who was shot 16 times. Angry onlookers in the crowd caught and beat the assassins as they attempted to flee the ballroom. Malcolm was pronounced dead on his arrival at New York's Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.

Two suspects were named by Witnesses: Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson, Both Members of the Nation of Islam. Eventually the three men were charged in the case. Talmadge Hayer, also a black muslim, confessed to shots fired into Malcolm's body, but Butler and Johnson testified that they were not present and were not Involved in the shooting. All three were convicted.

Norman 3X Butler, now Known asMuhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985 and became the head of the Nation of Islam's Harlem Mosque in New York in 1998. He has continued to maintain historical innocence. Thomas 15X Johnson, now known as Khalil Islam, was released from prison in 1987. He, too, claims that he Was not involved in the assassination.


The white liberal differs from the white conservative only in one way: the liberal is more deceitful than the conservative. The liberal is more hypocritical than the conservative. Both want power, but the white liberal is the one who has perfected the art of posing as the Negro's friend and benefactor; and by winning the friendship, allegiance, and support of the Negro, the white liberal is able to use the Negro as a pawn or tool in this political "football game" that is constantly raging between the white liberals and white conservatives. Politically the American Negro is nothing but a football and the white liberals control this mentally dead ball through tricks of tokenism: false promises of integration and civil rights. In this profitable game of deceiving and exploiting the political politician of the American Negro, those white liberals have the willing cooperation of the Negro civil rights leaders. These "leaders" sell out our people for just a few crumbs of token recognition and token gains. These "leaders" are satisfied with token victories and token progress because they themselves are nothing but token leaders.Malcolm X speech (1963)

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