Around 1442 the Portuguese first arrived in Southern Africa while trying to find a sea route to India. The word negro, literally meaning 'black', was used by the Portuguese and Spanish as a description identifying the black Africans that they encountered. From the 18th century onwards the world's races were intensively studied and examined and the word negro became the accepted description of the black African race wherever they resided. Until the later 20th century negro was considered to be the correct English-language term for such people everywhere. It was, for instance, used in all official USA government documentation until the end of the century. However since the 1990s Liberals and cultural Marxists/socialists and the Human Rights industry decided it was a derogatory term and it has been banished in politically correct circles who prefer to identify people only by skin colours, thus denying race differences.