Chronology of Austria

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Marchia Orientalis in blue before its separation from the Bavarian lands

The Chronology of Austria refers to the history of Austria from the time as part of the Kingdom of the East Franks in Germania, over the time as part of the Holy Roman Empire to the modern-day Republic of Austria as a result of World War II. The region has been inhabited since c. 25,000 B.C.[1]

Chronology

Ostarrîchi

East Frankia

Habsburg (orange), Luxembourg (violet) and Wittelsbach (green) dominions within the Holy Roman Empire, 14th century
Austrian Circle (1512–1806) in red (German: Österreichischer Reichskreis), an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire at the beginning of the 16th century
  • Arnulf of Carinthia (d. 8 December 899) was the duke of Carinthia in Ostarrîchi who overthrew his uncle, Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Roman-German Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria. Although duke in Ostarrîchi, he originates from the Duchy of Bavaria (555–1623), his father Cwas arloman (German: Karlmann; c. 830 – 22 March 880), a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia, and Hemma, daughter of a Bavarian count.
  • From 900 more and more invasions of the Magyars into German territory were jeopardizing the security of the Empire. An East Frankish army under king Emperor Otto I trapped a Hungarian army behind the Lech (Battle of Lechfeld) on 10 August 955 and wiped it out, saving the city of Augsburg and extending East Frankish territory eastward; gradual German reconquest of the region began.
  • 960 Burkhard was created margrave in the Bavarian marchia orientalis (eastern march), comprising territories recently conquered from the Hungarians, under the lordship of the Duchy of Bavaria and its duke, his sister-in-law's husband Henry II, Duke of Bavaria.
  • 994 Emperor Otto III, king of Kingdom of Germany, appointed Leopold the Illustrious's son Henry I the Strong, Margrave of Austria margrave of the Eastern March.

Holy Roman Empire

  • 972/76–1156 Margraviate of the Bavarian Eastern March (German: Bayerische Ostmark), later Ostarrîchi (German: Markgrafschaft Österreich); Since 976, it was governed by margraves from the Franconian noble House of Babenberg. The margraviate was protecting the eastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire, towards neighbouring Hungary. It became an Imperial State in its own right, when the Austrian margraves were elevated to Dukes of Austria in 1156.
    • 1 November 996 The term "Ostarrîchi" for the Roman-German territory "in the east" was first used in a medieval manuscript, possibly in reference to a small fief within the Eastern March (Ostmark).
  • 1156–1453 Duchy of Austria (German: Herzogtum Österreich), a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established by the Privilegium Minus of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
  • 1453–1806 Archduchy of Austria (German: Erzherzogtum Österreich), a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire. From the 15th century onwards, all Holy Roman Emperors but one were also archdukes of Austria. This ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in 1806.
    • Imperial Army (German: Kaiserliche Armee) or Imperial Troops (Kaiserliche Truppen); under the authority of the Roman-German Emperor
    • Army of the Holy Roman Empire (German: Reichsarmee, Reichsheer or Reichsarmatur); could only be deployed with the consent of the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag)

After the laying down of the German imperial crown

  • 1804/06–1867 Austrian Empire as part of the German Confederation; Austro-Prussian rivalry or Deutscher Dualismus (literally German dualism), Austria and the Kingdom of Prussia competed for the upper hand in Germany.
    • Imperial-Royal Army (German: Kaiserlich-Königliche Armee) and Imperial War Navy (German: Kaiserliche Kriegsmarine); distinctive defeat in the Austro-Prussian War or German war of brothers (Deutscher Bruderkrieg)
  • 1867–1918 Austria-Hungary (German: Österreich-Ungarn); not willing to give up the Kingdom of Hungary, Austria was not allowed into a new German confederation, there the German states of the north founded the North German Confederation (German: Norddeutscher Bund).
    • Common Army (German: Gemeinsame Armee) and Imperial and Royal War Navy (German: k.u.k. Kriegsmarine)
    • 1914–1918 Imperial and Royal Army (German: k.u.k. Armee) during WW I

After WW I

  • 1918–1919 Republic of German-Austria (German: Republik Deutsch-Österreich)
    • German-Austrian People's Militia (German: Deutschösterreichische Volkswehr)
  • 1919–1934 Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich)
    • 1920–1938 Federal Army (German: Bundesheer)
  • 1934–1938 Federal State of Austria (German: Bundesstaat Österreich) in its pre-1938 frontiers

Reunification with Germany

  • 13 March 1938 Austria's accession to the German Reich, from 1943 to 1945 als known as Greater German Reich (German: Großdeutsches Reich or Großdeutschland)
    • 1938–1940 State of Austria (German: Land Österreich)
    • 1940–1942 Reichsgaue of the Ostmark (German: Reichsgaue der Ostmark)
    • 1942–1945 Alpine and Danube Reichsgaue (German: Alpen- und Donau-Reichsgaue)

After WW II

  • 1945–1955 Four allied occupation zones
  • 15. May / 27. Juli 1955 (2nd) Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich or Zweite Republik)
    • 15. Mai 1955 Federal Army (German: Bundesheer)

External links

References

  1. In 2005 archaeologists in northern Austria reported finding the remains of two newborns dating back 27,000 years (25,000 B.C.) while excavating a hillside near Krems. The newborns were buried beneath mammoth bones and with a string of 31 beads, suggesting that the internment involved some sort of ritual. More than 150 large pagan temples of the Proto-Germanic period, constructed between 4800 B.C. an 4600 B.C., were unearthed in fields and cities in Germany, Austria and Slovakia in 2002-2005. A village at Aythra, near Leipzig in Germany, was home to some 300 people living in up to 20 large buildings around the temple.