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Hannibal (247 - c. 183–181 BC) was a Carthaginian general who is regarded as one of the great military leaders of antiquity. He commanded the Carthaginian forces against Ancient Rome in the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), with large initial Roman defeats, but eventual Roman victory. He continued to oppose Rome until his death.

His most famous victory was at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC). However, Rome actually suffered a larger, but less known defeat, at the Battle of Arausio (105 BC), against the Germanic Cimbri and Teutons.

The race of Hannibal has become controversial, with Afrocentric supporters claiming that Hannibal and Carthaginians were Blacks. See the Phoenicians article on their origins, with at least the upper classes in Carthage mainly being Phoenicians.


Hannibal had been the favourite hero of my later school days. Like so many boys of my age, I had sympathized in the Punic Wars not with the Romans but with the Carthaginians. And when in the higher classes I began to understand for the first time what it meant to belong to an alien race, and anti-semitic feelings among the other boys warned me that I must take up a definite position, the figure of the semitic general rose still higher in my esteem. To my youthful mind Hannibal and Rome symbolized the conflict between the tenacity of Jewry and the organization of the Catholic Church
Sigmund Freud, creator of psychoanalysis.

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