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The Phoenicians were inhabitants of Phoenicia, a region mostly corresponding to modern Lebanon. They were notable seafaring traders and colonizers of the Mediterranean, somewhat similar to the Ancient Greeks. They developed the first fully phonemic script, the Phoenician alphabet.

Their most famous colony was Carthage.

Their (racial) origin(s) are controversial, with some ancient sources suggesting other regions, such as the Persian Gulf. Their seafaring history may support that some part of the population derived from the Sea Peoples, with the high point of the Phoenicians occurring after the appearance of the Sea Peoples.

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