The International Brigades were proposed by the Communist Soviet Union and closely associated with Soviet Communism through Soviet controlled organizations such as the Comintern and the NKVD. Foreign pro-Soviet Communist Parties were used to recruit for volunteers. As a security measure, non-Communist volunteers would first be interviewed by an NKVD agent.
It is estimated that there were around 32,000 volunteers.
As payment for arms and supplies by the Soviet Union, the Republicans used a large part of the gold reserves of the Spanish nation (the world's fourth largest).
- The Spanish Civil War: A Successful Nationalist Revolution, Part 1
- The Spanish Civil War: A Successful Nationalist Revolution, Part 2
- The Untold Victors: The Spanish Civil As History Not Propaganda
- Jewish Murderers of the Spanish Civil War at Real Zionist News
- Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, 1961 (1st Ed) p. 637.
- Sugarman, Martin. Against Fascism – Jews who served in The International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War. Jewish Virtual Library/Jewish Military Museum.