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See also nationalism and anarchism

Anarchism is an ideology that rejects any form of compulsory government at any level. The term "anarchism" derives from Ancient Greek an- ("without") + arkhos ("leader" or "ruler"). Another variant is anarcho-capitalism, however, the term is today often used as a synonym for left-wing social anarchism.

Early prominent anarchist writers included Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin, who, as well as other early anarchists, were anti-Semitic.

Through Georges Sorel, anarcho-syndicalists had an influence on the development national syndicalism, in turn associated with fascism (broad sense).

During the second-half of the nineteenth century anarchists assassinated several monarchs and wounded others. These include Tsar Alexander II of Russia (k.1881), Empress Elizabeth of Austria (k.1898), King Umberto I of Italy (k.1900), and Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany (two attempts in 1878).