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Anarchism is an ideology that reject any form of compulsory government. The term "anarchism" derives from Ancient Greek an- ("without") + arkhos ("leader" or "ruler"). There are both left-wing and right-wing variants.

Early prominent anarchist thinkers included Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin, who, as well as other early prominent anarchists, were anti-Semitic.

Through Georges Sorel, anarcho-syndicalists had an influence on the development national syndicalism, in turn associated with fascism (broad sense). See also the article on nationalism and anarchism.

Another variant is anarcho-capitalism.

However, the term is today often used as a synonym for left-wing social anarchism.