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Anarchism is an ideology that rejects any form of compulsory government at any level especially for the rejection of a hierarchy. The term "anarchism" derives from Ancient Greek an- ("without") + arkhos ("leader" or "ruler"). Another variant is anarcho-capitalism, however, the term is today often used as a synonym for left-wing social anarchism. Overall the idea of an Anarchist perspective can occur on both sides of the political spectrum, including national-anarchism, thereby being "beyond left or right".

Early prominent anarchist writers included Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin, who, as well as other early anarchists, were anti-Semitic.

Through Georges Sorel, anarcho-syndicalists had an influence on the development national syndicalism, in turn associated with fascism (broad sense).

During the second-half of the nineteenth century anarchists assassinated several monarchs and wounded others. These include Russian Emperor Alexander II (k. 13 March 1881), Empress Elizabeth of Austria (k. 1898), King Umberto I of Italy (k. 1900), Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand (k. 28 June 1914) by Gavrilo Princip (leading to WWI) and German Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany (two attempts in 1878).

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