National syndicalism

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National syndicalism is a term for some form of combination of nationalism and syndicalism (emphasizing worker-based cooperative organizations).

While syndicalism is sometimes viewed as almost synonymous with far leftist anarcho-syndicalism, it may have wider meanings, especially earlier, indicating far leftist rejection of "reformism" (reform through democratic methods) in favor of revolutionary methods and indicating views having similarities with corporatism. Some nationalists and some syndicalists may also have similar views on anti-liberal democracy, anti-capitalism, anti-communism, and criticisms of cultural/moral developments.

National syndicalism is stated to have appeared around 1900 in France and Italy and later in Portugal and Spain. In France, before WWI, national syndicalist views had some influence on integralism and organizations such as Action Française, and Cercle Proudhon. In Italy, nationalists and syndicalists were increasingly influencing each other and were among the origins of Italian fascism. By extension, there was some influence on fascism (broad sense)

National syndicalism, fascism, and the political spectrum

Fascism (broad sense) is often classified as a far right ideology on the political spectrum, but national syndicalism has in part (far) leftist origins.

Notably in Italy, many syndicalist leaders eventually embraced nationalism and "were among the founders of the Fascist movement," where "many even held key posts" in Mussolini's regime. Mussolini himself stated that he had become a revolutionary syndicalist in 1904 during a general strike.[1]

Regardless, the economic system of fascist Italy is usually not described as syndicalist, but often as a (state) corporatist economic system, presumably indicating that economic views are seen as having changed.

See also Political spectrum.

National syndicalism, fascism, and violence

Politically correct sources place very great emphasis on that the (usually) far leftist syndicalist Georges Sorel briefly supported national syndicalism and later wrote positively on Mussolini. He also wrote negatively on Italian fascism and positively on Lenin and the Communist revolution in Russia. Sorel had expressed positive views on violence, such as in Reflections on Violence (1906), which was written in support of far leftist class conflicts and violence. This is then dubiously cited as very important evidence for that this view is a very important characteristic of all forms of fascism.

Politically correct sources may have a double standard, implying that far leftist syndicalist economic views changed, but that far leftist syndicalist pro-violence views cannot have changed, despite that fascists after gaining power tried to lessen class conflicts.

Furthermore, while Sorel had some influence on national syndicalism, that he had any significant influence on, for example, Hitler, is dubious, with no mention in Mein Kampf.

Also, the main fascist movements existed at a time when all the main democratic countries had long used violence for purposes such as colonialism. Supporters of various ideologies have viewed violence positively for purposes such as revolutions and regime changes in order to spread the ideology, including supporters of liberal democracy. All governments sometimes use violent methods, such as by the police and the military.

References

Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.