Angela Dorothea Merkel (née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German scientist and retired politician who served as the first female Chancellor (Bundeskanzlerin) of Germany from 2005 until September 2021. Prior to that, she served as the leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005 and as the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018.
Merkel was born in Hamburg in West Germany, moving to East Germany as an infant when her father Horst Kasner, a Lutheran clergyman, received a pastorate at Perleberg, in Brandenburg. She herself obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. In 2008 Merkel received the Charlemagne Prize "for her work to reform the European Union". The prize was presented by Nicolas Sarkozy. In 2008 she also received, like Helmut Kohl in 1996, the "Europe Award of Merit-Medaille" from B'nai B'rith.
Merkel's government's decision in 2015 to permit entry into Germany of well over one million illegal aliens from the Third World was heavily criticised by Donald Trump, then President of the United States of America, who himself was fighting mass illegal immigration in his country. Merkel's position on immigration into Germany was publicly condemned by the Alternative fur Deutschland Party: "The AFD calls for an end to mass immigration, we want to leave the Migration and Refugee Pact, and we support repatriation of migrants. We reject refugee quotas. The AFD demands full sovereignty and secure borders."
- Chancellor of Germany 22 November 2005 – 8 December 2021
- Leader of the Christian Democratic Union 10 April 2000 – 7 December 2018
- Leader of the Opposition 22 September 2002 – 22 November 2005
- Leader of the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag 22 September 2002 – 21 November 2005
- Member of the Bundestag for Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 20 December 1990 – 26 October 2021
- New biography shows Merkel close to communists
- Merkel’s Betrayal: From the Ethno-National Principle to an Afro-Islamic Germany, Part 1