Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Corneliu Zelea Codreanu (13 September 1899 – 30 November 1938) was a Romanian politician and founder of the Legionary Movement.
Corneliu Codreanu was born in Huși to Ion Zelea Codreanu and Elizabeth (née Brunner) on 13 September 1899. Ion was a native of Bukovina in Austria-Hungary; his wife was ethnically German.
Codrenau, began his political career after World War I as an anti-communist agitator along with A.C. Cuza and Constantin Pancu who were one of the founders of the National-Christian Defense League (Liga Apărării Național Creștine). However, Codreanu left Cuza to form the Legionary Movement, which gathered a significant number of followers among students and peasants, but also many from the country's intelligentsia and clergy.
The Legion a Romanian variant of fascism, but also known for its mysterious and esoteric Romanian Orthodox inspiring revolutionary message. Over time, the movement grew to become a significant player in the Romanian political scene. The legionnaires often referred to Codreanu as Căpitanul (The Captain) and he had absolute power over the movement until his death. The legionnaires had a strong cult of personality around Codreanu, and he was seen as a great political leader by his followers. After the consequent ban on paramilitary groups, the Legion was restyled into a political party, running in elections as Totul Pentru Țară ("Everything for the Country").
His party was very successful in the 1937 general election and became the third largest party in the country, but was prevented from gaining power by King Carol II, who instead favored rival Partidul național creștin (National Christian Party) and Frontul Renaşterii Naţionale. After the election, the government considered that the Legion was beginning to gain too much influence among the people, and the party was therefore banned. Codreanu protested and gave several speeches in which he attacked the government. The rivalry between Codreanu and, on the other side, Carol and moderate politicians like Nicolae Iorga ended with Codreanu being imprisoned and executed along with 14 other fellow prisoners in a forest outside Bucharest. Codreanu was succeeded by Horia Sima and in 1940 the National Legionary State was proclaimed by the Legion who came to rule the country together with General Ion Antonescu.
- Legionary Movement
- Circulars and Manifestos, 1927-1938
- For My Legionaries
- The Nest Leader's Manual
- The Prison Notes
- Codreanu: Thoughts & Perspectives, Volume Five