Alfons Vilhelm Robert Rebane (24 June 1908 – 8 March 1976) was an Estonian military commander. He was the most highly decorated Estonian military officer during World War II, serving in seveal Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS units.
After World War II, Rebane joined the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) where he played a key role in assisting the armed resistance to Soviet rule in Estonia and other Baltic countries. He led the Estonian portion of MI6's Operation Jungle well into the 1950s.
In 1961, Rebane retired from the British intelligence services and moved to Germany, where he stayed until his death in Augsburg in 1976.
The 1999 reburial of Rebane in Estonia with state honors, and later honors, caused a number of Jewish and Russian protests, despite Rebane not being convicted of any war crimes.