The Black Book of Communism

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The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression

According to French Professor Stéphane Courtois, writing in the introduction to The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (1997), approximately 100 million (94 million) deaths had resulted from Communism over its 85 year history [at the time of publication].

This includes 20 million deaths in the Soviet Union alone from causes such as

  • execution of tens of thousands of hostages and prisoners without trial, and killing of hundreds of thousands or rebellious workers and peasants from 1918 to 1922
  • the mass starvation of 1922 causing five million deaths due to "War Communism" policies
  • the extermination and deportation of the Don Cossacks in 1920
  • killing of tens of thousands in concentration camps from 1918 to 1930 (the Gulag system after 1930 caused millions of deaths)
  • killing of 690,00 during the Great Purge
  • deportation of 2 million kulaks and so-called kulaks) in 1930-1932
  • deaths of 4 million Ukrainians and 2 million others during the mass starvation of 1932-1933 (the Holodomor)
  • deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles, Ukrainians, Balts, Moldovans and Bessarabians in 1939-1941 and 1944-1945
  • deportation of the Volga Germans in 1941
  • deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1943
  • deportation of the Chechens in 1944
  • deportation of the Ingush in 1944

The book also states

See also