The Black Book of Communism

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The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression

According to Stéphane Courtois, writing in the introduction to The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (1997), approximately 100 million (94 million) deaths have resulted from Communism over its 85 year history.

This includes 20 million deaths in the Soviet Union alone from causes such as

  • execution of tens of thousands of hostages and prisoners without trial, and killing of hundreds of thousands or rebellious workers and peasants from 1918 to 1922
  • the mass starvation of 1922 causing five million deaths due to "War Communism" policies
  • the extermination and deportation of the Don Cossacks in 1920
  • killing of tens of thousands in concentration camps from 1918 to 1930 (the Gulag system after 1930 caused millions of deaths)
  • killing of 690,00 during the Great Purge
  • deportation of 2 million kulaks and so-called kulaks) in 1930-1932
  • deaths of 4 million Ukrainians and 2 million others during the mass starvation of 1932-1933 (the Holodomor)
  • deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles, Ukrainians, Balts, Moldovans and Bessarabians in 1939-1941 and 1944-1945
  • deportation of the Volga Germans in 1941
  • deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1943
  • deportation of the Chechens in 1944
  • deportation of the Ingush in 1944

The book also states

See also