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Romanticism, in European history, refers to an art and intellectual movement and/or the time period when it flourished, in reaction against Neoclassicism / the Age of Enlightenment / the Industrial Revolution, ending around the mid-19th century for several forms of arts, in turn replaced there by Realism.

Characteristics include increased emphasis on the beauty of nature, emotions, the exotic causing strong emotions, the medieval period, personality, the hero/genius, and nationalism (including various related aspects, such as folklore and Romantic nationalism).[1]

The term "Romanticism" itself derives from "romance", medieval stories, often with chivalric adventures full of marvelous incidents and heroic deeds by (national) heroes. This became contrasted with classicism and stories from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.[2][3]

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