The Industrial Revolution is the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world.
There were several other "revolutions" associated with this, including the Scientific Revolution and the Agricultural Revolution. The causes are controversial and extensively debated.
Less politically aspects include argued race aspects. See also Race and intelligence.
Another less politically correct aspect is argued eugenic causes. See also Eugenics: Eugenics and the Industrial Revolution
Still another is argued dysgenic consequences, as discussed in the Dysgenics article.