Ludwig F. Clauss
Ludwig Ferdinand Clauß (8 February 1892 - 13. Januar 1974) was a German psychologist and racial theorist.
He grew up in Freiburg, where he also studied philosophy, psychology and English and Scandinavian philology. He was a student of the Jewish philosopher Edmund Husserl. Clauß became a member of several völkisch organizations. He held his first lectures on the psychology of race in 1921-1922. The habilitation thesis of Clauß and stated anti-Jewish criticisms caused a falling out with Husserl.
In the late 1920s, he and Margarete Landé, who had Jewish ancestry, traveled in the Middle East for anthropological purposes. They ostensibly converted to Islam, possibly in order to gain the absolute trust of the Arabs.
In 1933, he became a member of the NSDAP and the German Faith Movement. His racial writings and theories gave him some influence, although sources disagree on the extent of this and what his views were. He may even be claimed to be one of the "fathers of Nazi racism", despite that, for example, in an article entitled “Are the Jews an inferior race?” Clauss concluded in 1933 that “There are no inferior races for science.” The leftist Wikipedia, which usually has negative articles on everything remotely "Nazi", unusually has no English article on him, despite his claimed influence.
In 1943, he was expelled from the party and also dismissed from the civil service, in part due to his relationship with Margarete Landé. His support of her is stated to have helped her survive the war. For this, he was named "Righteous Among the Nations". After his involvement with the NSDAP became known, this was withdrawn.
Descriptions of his later involvement in the war effort varies, sometimes alleged as "Clauss took part in cruel experiments on human beings, primarily in the Balkan region, as part of the SS unit devoted to “anthropological studies”" (but was apparently never even prosecuted for these alleged crimes), sometimes instead just described as being part of the National Socialist attempts to create an alliance with Muslims.
In the postwar period, he was banned from the "denazified" academia, but to some degree continued with research.
- Ludwig F. Clauss: Racial Style, Racial Character (Part I)
- The Beauty and the Beast: Race and Racism in Europe, Part II
- Ludwig Ferdinand Clauß - German Wikipedia.
- The Curious Friendship Between S. Y. Agnon and a Future Nazi Criminal - Description in the Israeli newspaper Haaretz.