Lorraine is today part of north-east France. Anciently it was part of the dominions of the Franks, a Rhineland German nation whose most famous leader was Karl de Gross, or Charlemagne. Lorraine's original name has its origins in the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named after either Emperor Lothair I or King Lothair II, both of the family of Karl de Gross. It later was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine before the Kingdom of France annexed it in 1766. Germany recovered Lotharingia following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War 1870-71. Germany's collapse at the end of The Great War saw the province awarded to France under the infamous Treaty of Versailles.
- Winder, Simon, Lotharingia, London, 2019, ISBN: 978-1-5098-0323-5