Harry Dexter White

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Harry Dexter White

Harry Dexter White (left) with John Maynard Keynes at the Bretton Woods Conference

Ethnicity Jewish
Occupation Economist
Religion Judaism
Parents Joseph Weit
Sarah Magilewski

Harry Dexter White (October 9, 1892 – August 16, 1948) was a Jewish-American economist, a senior U.S. Treasury department official and an agent of the Soviet Union. He was the senior American official at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference, and reportedly dominated the conference and imposed his vision of post-war financial institutions over the objections of John Maynard Keynes, the British representative. After the war, White was a major architect of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

In August 1948, White testified and defended his record to the House Un-American Activities Committee. Three days after testifying he died of a heart attack at his summer home in Fitzwilliam, NH. A number of sources, including the FBI and Soviet archives, indicate that he passed secret state information to the Soviet Union during World War II.[1]


Early life

Harry Dexter White was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the seventh and youngest child of Jewish Lithuanian[2] immigrants, Joseph Weit and Sarah Magilewski, who had settled in America in 1885. In 1917 he enlisted in the U.S. Army, and was commissioned as lieutenant and served in France in a non-combat capacity in World War I. He did not begin his university studies until age 30, first at Columbia University, then at Stanford, where he earned a first degree in economics. After completing a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University at 38 years of age, White taught four years at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin. Harvard University Press published his Ph.D. thesis in 1933, as The French International Accounts, 1880–1913. His PhD dissertation won the David A. Wells Prize granted annually by the Department of Economics, Harvard University.

Office of Monetary Research

White was a dedicated internationalist, and his energies were directed at continuing the Grand Alliance and maintaining peace through trade. He believed that powerful, multilateral institutions could avoid the mistakes of Versailles and prevent another worldwide depression. As head of the independently-funded Office of Monetary Research, White was able to hire staff without the normal civil service regulations or background enquiries.[3]

Treasury Department

In 1934, Jacob Viner, a professor at the University of Chicago working at the Treasury Department, offered White a position at the Treasury, which he accepted.[citation needed]

After the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, White was appointed assistant to the also Jewish Henry Morgenthau, Jr., the Secretary of the Treasury, to act as liaison between the Treasury and the State Department on all matters bearing on foreign relations. He was also made responsible for the "management and operation of the Exchange Stabilization Fund without a change in its procedures." White eventually came to be in charge of international matters for the Treasury, with access to extensive confidential information about the economic situation of the USA and its wartime allies.

According to Henry Morgenthau's son, White was the principal architect behind the Morgenthau Plan.[4] The Morgenthau postwar plan, as authored by White, was to take all industry out of Germany, eliminate its armed forces, and convert the country into an agricultural community, in the process eliminating most of Germany's economy and its ability to defend itself if attacked. A version of the plan, limited to turning Germany into "a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character", was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Second Quebec Conference in September 1944. However, someone in White's department with access to details of the plan leaked it to the press, and White himself provided an advance copy to Soviet intelligence.[5] Public protests forced Roosevelt to publicly backtrack. Joseph Goebbels used the revelation the Morgenthau Plan as a propaganda coup to encourage the German troops and citizens to rally and continue the fight. White's actions also benefited the Soviet Union, virtually ensuring that the German government or its successors would not negotiate a separate peace with the West. In the end Morgenthau still did manage to influence the resulting occupation policy,[6] particularly through the Occupation Directive JCS 1067, which was in effect until the summer 1947, and which forbade activities designed for economic reconstruction in Germany. In a report on the German situation after 2 years of occupation, former President Herbert Hoover would in March 1947 remark:

There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a "pastoral state". It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it.[7]

Dismantling of German heavy industry in the west, agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference, continued until 1951.

White was the senior American official at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference, and reportedly dominated the conference and imposed his vision over the objections of John Maynard Keynes, the British representative.[3][8] After the war, White was closely involved with setting up what were called the Bretton Woods institutions—the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. These institutions were intended to prevent some of the economic problems that had occurred after World War I. As late as November 1945, White continued to argue for improved relations with the Soviet Union.[9] White later became a director and U.S. representative of the IMF.

On June 19, 1947, White abruptly resigned from the International Monetary Fund, vacating his office the same day.[citation needed]

Accusations of espionage

Chambers accusations 1939, 1945

On September 2, 1939, the day after Hitler's invasion of Poland and less than a fortnight after the German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact was signed, Assistant Secretary of State and Roosevelt's adviser on internal security Adolf Berle had a meeting, arranged by journalist Isaac Don Levine, with defecting Soviet agent Whittaker Chambers. In his notes of that meeting, written later that night, Levine listed a series of names, including a "Mr. White".[10] Berle's notes of the meeting contain no mention of White.[11] Berle drafted a 4-page memorandum on the information which he then passed to the President, who dismissed the idea of espionage rings in his administration as 'absurd'. The director of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover, as late as 1942,[12] also dismissed Chambers' revelations as 'history, hypothesis, or deduction.'

Bentley accusations 1945, 1948, 1953

On March 20, 1945, State Department security officer Raymond Murphy interviewed Chambers. His notes record that Chambers identified White as "a member at large but rather timid", who had brought various members of the American communist underground into the Treasury.[13]

On November 7, 1945, defecting Soviet espionage courier Elizabeth Bentley told investigators of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) that in late 1942 or early 1943 she learned from Soviet spies Nathan Gregory Silvermaster and Ludwig Ullmann that one source of the government documents they were photographing and passing on to her and NKVD spymaster Jacob Golos was Harry Dexter White.[14]

The next day, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover sent a hand-delivered letter to Truman's Military Aide, Gen. Harry Vaughan, at the White House, reporting information that "a number of persons employed by the government of the United States have been furnishing data and information to persons outside the Federal Government, who are in turn transmitting this information to espionage agents of the Soviet government." The letter listed a dozen Bentley suspects, the second of whom was Harry Dexter White.[15]

The FBI summarized the Bentley information and in its follow-up investigation on the suspects she named, again including White,[16] in a report entitled 'Soviet Espionage in the United States',[17] which was sent to the White House, the Attorney General and the State Department on December 4, 1945.[18] Six weeks later, on January 23, 1946, Truman nominated White as U.S. Director of the International Monetary Fund. The FBI responded with a 28-page memo specifically on White and his contacts, received by the White House on February 4, 1946.[19] White's nomination was approved by the Senate, acting in ignorance of the allegations against White, on February 6, 1946.

Six years later, Truman would testify that White had been "separated from the Government service promptly" upon receipt of this information—first from the Treasury, and then from the IMF.[20] In fact, White was still at the IMF on June 19, 1947—more than two years after the FBI had alerted the White House about him—when he abruptly resigned (vacating his office the same day), after Attorney General Tom Clark ordered a Federal grand jury investigation of the Bentley charges.[21]

On July 31, 1948 Bentley told the House Committee on Un-American Activities that White had been involved in espionage activities on behalf of Soviet Union during World War II,[22] and had passed sensitive Treasury documents to Soviet agents. Bentley said White's colleagues passed information to her from him. In her 1953 testimony Bentley said that White was responsible for passing Treasury plates for printing Allied military marks in occupied Germany to the Soviets, who thereupon printed currency with abandon,[23] sparking a black market and serious inflation throughout the occupied country,[24] costing the U.S. a quarter of a billion dollars.[25] However the alternative explanation is that Treasury officials feared that denying Soviet use of the plates in their occupation sector would endanger postwar cooperation.[23]

Bentley wrote in her 1951 autobiography that she had been "able through Harry Dexter White to arrange that the United States Treasury Department turn the actual printing plates over to the Russians".[26] Bentley had not previously mentioned this to the FBI or to any of the committees, grand juries or prosecutors before whom she had testified earlier, and there was no evidence at the time that Bentley had any role in this transfer. Some questioned Harry Dexter White's role in it.[27]

In her 1953 testimony before Joseph McCarthy's Senate subcommittee, she elaborated, testifying that she was following instructions from NKVD New York rezident Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov (who operated under the cover name "Bill") to pass word through Ludwig Ullmann and Nathan Gregory Silvermaster for White to "put the pressure on for the delivery of the plates to Russia".[28]

This is the only case in which Bentley biographer Kathryn Olmstead concluded that Bentley was lying about her role,[24] citing historian Bruce Craig's conclusion that "the whole 'scheme' was a complete fabrication".[29]

But Bentley's testimony would later be corroborated in dramatic fashion by a memorandum found in Soviet archives after half a century. In it, Gaik Ovakimian, head of the American desk of the NKVD (for which Bentley worked),[30] cites a report from New York (where Bentley was based)[31] from April 14, 1944 (when Bentley was running the Silvermaster group)[32][33] reporting that, "following our instructions" via Silvermaster, White had obtained "the positive decision of the Treasury Department to provide the Soviet side with the plates for engraving German occupation marks".[34]

Chambers accusations 1948

Whittaker Chambers, an admitted former Soviet espionage agent, subsequently testified on August 3 to his association with White in the Communist underground secret apparatus up to 1938.[35] Chambers produced documents he had saved from his days as a courier for the Soviets' American spy-ring. Among these was a handwritten memorandum that he testified White had given him. The Treasury Department identified this document as containing highly confidential material from the State Department, while the FBI Laboratory established that it was written in White's handwriting.[36] Chambers stated, however, that White was the least productive of his contacts. [37] Chambers said of White, "His motives always baffled me", a point underscored by Chambers' grandson. [38]

Accusations by Jenner and McCarthy 1953

Senator William Jenner's Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments Investigation by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) looked extensively into the problem of unauthorized and uncontrolled powers exercised by non-elected officials, specifically White. Part of its report looked into the implementation of Roosevelt administration policy in China and was published as the Morgenthau Diary.[39] The report stated,

The concentration of Communist sympathizers in the Treasury Department, and particularly the Division of Monetary Research, is now a matter of record. White was the first director of that division; those who succeeded him in the directorship were Frank Coe and Harold Glasser. Also attached to the Division of Monetary Research were William Ludwig Ullman, Irving Kaplan, and Victor Perlo. White, Coe, Glasser, Kaplan, and Perlo were all identified as participants in the Communist conspiracy ...

The committee also heard testimony by Henry Morgenthau's speechwriter, Jonathan Mitchell, that White had tried to persuade him that the Soviets had developed a system that would supplant capitalism and Christianity.

In 1953, Senator Joseph McCarthy and Eisenhower administration Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr. revealed that the FBI had warned the Truman administration about White before the President appointed him to the IMF. Brownell made public the FBI's November 8, 1945 letter to the White House warning about White and others, and revealed that the White House had received the FBI report on "Soviet Espionage in the United States," including the White case, six weeks before Truman nominated White to the IMF.[40]

Although he does not dispute that the FBI sent these and other warnings to Truman, Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan wrote in his introduction to the 1997 Moynihan Commission report on government secrecy that Truman was never informed of Venona.[41] In support of this, he cited a statement from the official NSA/CIA history of Venona that "no definitive evidence has emerged to show" that Truman was informed of Venona.[42]


On August 13, 1948, White testified before HUAC and denied being a communist. After he finished testifying he had a heart attack. He left Washington for a rest on his Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire farm. He had just arrived when he had another heart attack.[43] Two days later, on August 16, 1948, he died, age 55.[44][45] An overdose of digitalis was reported as the cause of death.[46]

Venona project

NSA cryptographers identified Harry Dexter White as the source denoted in the Venona decrypts at various times under the code names "Lawyer",[47] "Richard",[48] and "Jurist".[49] Two years after his death, in a memorandum dated 15 October 1950, White was positively identified by the FBI, through evidence gathered by the Venona project, as a Soviet source, code named "Jurist".[50]

Years later, the Justice Department publicly disclosed the existence of the Venona project which deciphered Soviet cable traffic naming White as "Jurist", a Soviet intelligence source. As reported in the FBI Memorandum on White:
You have previously been advised of information obtained from [Venona] regarding Jurist, who was active during 1944. According to the previous information received from [Venona] regarding Jurist, during April, 1944, he had reported on conversations between the then Secretary of State Hull and Vice President Wallace. He also reported on Wallace's proposed trip to China. On August 5, 1944, he reported to the Soviets that he was confident of President Roosevelt's victory in the coming elections unless there was a huge military failure. He also reported that Truman's nomination as Vice President was calculated to secure the vote of the conservative wing of the Democratic Party. It was also reported that Jurist was willing for any self-sacrifice in behalf of the MGB but was afraid that his activities, if exposed, might lead to a political scandal and have an effect on the elections. It was also mentioned that he would be returning to Washington, D. C., on August 17, 1944. The new information from [Venona] indicates that Jurist and Morgenthau were to make a trip to London and Normandy and leaving the United States on August 5, 1944.
This codename was confirmed by the notes of KGB archivist Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin in his country volume 6, chapter 3, part1, where six key Soviet agents are named. Harry Dexter White is listed as being first "KASSIR" and later "JURIST".[51]

Another example of White acting as an agent of influence for the Soviet Union was his obstruction of a proposed $200 million loan to Nationalist China in 1943, which he had been officially instructed to execute,[52] at a time when inflation was spiraling out of control.[53]

Other Venona decrypts revealed further damaging evidence against White, including White's suggestions on how to meet and pass information on to his Soviet handler. Venona Document #71 contains decryptions of White's discussions on being paid for his work for the Soviet Union.[53][54]

In 1997, the bipartisan Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, chaired by Democratic Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, stated in its findings,

The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled. As does that of Harry Dexter White of the Treasury Department.[55]

Further evidence of White's complicity as a Soviet agent was gleaned from Soviet archives and KGB operative Alexander Vassiliev. In a book by Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era, Vassiliev, a former Soviet journalist and KGB operative, reviewed Soviet archives dealing with White's actions on behalf of the Soviet Union. White assisted Harold Glasser, a Treasury executive and NKVD spy, "in obtaining posts and promotions at Treasury while aware of his Communist ties". Because of White's backing, Glasser survived an FBI background check. In December 1941 the Secret Service forwarded a report to Harry White indicating that it had evidence Glasser was involved in Communist activities. White never acted on the report. Glasser continued to serve in the Treasury Department, and soon began recruiting other agents and preparing briefing reports on Treasury personnel and other potential espionage agents for the NKVD. After America became involved in World War II, Glasser received appointments to several higher-level positions in the government on White's approval.[56]

According to Soviet archives, White's other MGB code names were "Richard", and "Reed". In order to protect their source, Soviet intelligence repeatedly changed White's code name.

White's family and biographers still maintain his innocence.[5] Stephen Schlesinger writes: "Among historians, the verdict about White is still unresolved, but many incline toward the view that he wanted to help the Russians but did not regard the actions he took as constituting espionage."[57] Robert Skidelsky, in reviewing the evidence, concludes that:

A combination of naivety, superficiality and supreme confidence in his own judgement - together with his background - explains the course of action White took. There is no question of treachery, in the accepted sense of betraying one's country's secrets to an enemy. But there can be no doubt that, in passing classified information to the Soviets, White knew he was betraying his trust, even if he did not thereby think he was betraying his country.[58]

Argued influence as a Soviet agent

White has been argued to have negatively influenced:[59]

  • American policies contributing to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Giving large-scale American financial support to the Soviet Union, even at the end of the war when Germany was defeated.
  • Providing the Soviets with the printing plates, colored inks, varnish, tint blocks and special paper to enable them to counterfeit the Allied occupational currency for Germany, allowing them to flood the country with currency that U.S. taxpayers were forced to redeem.
  • The Morgenthau Plan
  • American policies contributing to the Communist takeover of China.
  • Bringing other Communist agents into the U.S. government, promoting them, and repeatedly sabotaging investigative efforts and attempts to expose and remove them.
  • The 1944 Bretton Woods monetary conference, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, argued to cause various long-term negative economic and monetary effects for the capitalist countries.
  • The creation of the United Nations.

The Holocaust and the Vrba-Wetzler report

The Treasury Department under the Jewish Morgenthau and White has been argued to have conducted an anti-German campaign and interfered in foreign policy. Morgenthau in 1944 managed to establish the War Refugee Board (WRB) which notably gave official US sanction to the important Vrba-Wetzler report on Auschwitz in the form of a WRB report. Morgenthau had delegated all of the Treasury’s powers in the areas relevant to the WRB to White.[60]

See also

External links


  1. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009)
  2. R. Bruce Craig, Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case,University Press of Kansas, 2004 p. 17 ISBN 978-0-7006-1311-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 "One Man's Greed", Time, 1953-11-23, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,860101,00.html, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  4. Dietrich, John (2002), [Expression error: Missing operand for > The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy], New York: Algora Publishing, pp. 17, ISBN 1-892941-90-2, OCLC 49355870 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Schecter, Jerrold; Leona Schecter (2002), [Expression error: Missing operand for > Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History], Washington, DC: Brassey's, ISBN 1-57488-327-5, OCLC 48375744 
  6. Frederick H. Gareau "Morgenthau's Plan for Industrial Disarmament in Germany" The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Jun., 1961)
  7. http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2008/webarticles/080103_marshallplan.html
  8. Donald Markwell, John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace, Oxford University Press, 2006
  9. White, Harry Dexter (1945-11-30). "Untitled paper advocating "continued Peace and friendly relations with Russia"". Princeton University collection.
  10. Isaac Don Levine's Notes of the Meeting
  11. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.90-91
  12. Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p.256
  13. Allan Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss–Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0-394-49546-2, p. 346
  14. FBI file: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, October 21, 1946, p. 78-79 (PDF pp. 86-87)
  15. Hoover to Vaughan, November 8, 1945, FBI Silvermaster file, Vol. 16, PDF pp. 98, 99, 100. Cf. Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957 (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency/Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), Document 15, pp. 69, 70, 71
  16. [1], p. 47 (PDF p. 45)
  17. http://education-research.org/PDFs/SOVIET%20REPORT.pdf
  18. FBI memo: Harry Dexter White, PDF p. 54
  19. Harry Dexter White, PDF pp. 24-52
  20. Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p. 257
  21. Robert G. Whalen (December 12, 1948). "Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30F14F63D5B157A93C0A81789D95F4C8485F9. 
  22. "Elizabeth Bentley Deposition, FBI Silvermaster file" (PDF), FBI's FOIA Website, 1948-07-31, archived from the original on 2007-03-06, http://web.archive.org/web/20070306140952/http://foia.fbi.gov/silversm/silversm2b.pdf, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  23. 23.0 23.1 James C. Van Hook, "Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case," Studies in Intelligence," Vol. 49, No. 1, 2005
  24. 24.0 24.1 Radosh, Ronald (February 24, 2003), "The Truth-Spiller", National Review, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_3_55/ai_97347251/pg_1, retrieved 2008-07-30, "... Bentley accused of providing stolen U.S. currency plates to the Soviets. (The plates were used to print unlimited amounts of occupation currency in the eastern zone of postwar Germany, sparking a black market and serious inflation throughout the occupied country.)" 
  25. Henry Morgenthau, The Morgenthau Diaries, Book 732, pp. 97-99.
  26. Bentley 1951, p. 141
  27. Craig, R. Bruce (2004), [Expression error: Missing operand for > Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case], University Press of Kansas, pp. 245, ISBN 0-7006-1311-0 
  28. Testimony of Elizabeth Bentley, S. Prt. 107-84 - Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations (McCarthy Hearings 1953-54), Vol. 4, p. 3427
  29. Olmsted 2002, p. 186
  30. Michael Warner, Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley, Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2003
  31. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.96
  32. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (London: Basic Books, 1999) ISBN 978-0-465-00310-5, p. 129
  33. (Olmstead 2002, p. 45)
  34. Schecter, Jerrold L. (2003), [Expression error: Missing operand for > Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History], Potomac Books, pp. 122, ISBN 1-57488-522-7 
  35. Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 1948-08-03, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/8-3testimony.html, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  36. FBI Memorandum identifying Harry Dexter White as agent Jurist
  37. [|Chambers, Whittaker] (1952), Witness, New York: Random House, pp. 383–384, 414–416, 419–421, 429–432, 510–512, et al., ISBN 52-5149, http://lccn.loc.gov/52005149 
  38. Chambers, David (21 May 2012). The Baffling Harry White. HNN. Retrieved on 21 June 2012.
  39. "Records of the Morgenthau Diary Study, 1953-65", Guide to the Records of the U.S. Senate at the National Archives (Record Group 46) (The Center for Legislative Archives), http://www.archives.gov/legislative/guide/senate/chapter-13-judiciary-1947-1968.html#103, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  40. "The White Case Record", Time, 1953-11-30, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823119,00.html, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  41. Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (1997), "Chairman's Forward" (PDF), Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CDOC-105sdoc2/pdf/GPO-CDOC-105sdoc2-4.pdf, retrieved August 21, 2012 
  42. Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., VENONA: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957 (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency/Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), xxiv.
  43. "Categorical Denial", Time (magazine), August 30, 1948, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,799061,00.html, retrieved 2008-07-30, "Shortly after he had finished testifying before Congress, suffering from a bad heart, Harry White left Washington for a rest on his New Hampshire farm. He had just arrived there when he was stricken by another heart attack. Two days later, death came to Harry Dexter White, 56." 
  44. Victor Nevasky, Letters From Readers: "Harry Dexter White," Commentary, April 1988, p. 10 (Cf. David Rees, Harry Dexter White: A Study in Paradox (Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973), ISBN 978-0-698-10524-9)
  45. Harry Dexter White, Accused In Spy Inquiry, Dies at 56, United Press in Washington Post, August 18, 1948, http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost_historical/access/293601642.html?dids=293601642:293601642&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=AUG+18%2C+1948&author=&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=Harry+Dexter+White%2C+Accused+In+Spy+Inquiry%2C+Dies+at+56&pqatl=google, retrieved 2008-04-04, "Harry Dexter White, former Assistant Secretary of the Treasury accused of Soviet espionage activity during the current spy hearings at Washington, died unexpectedly at his Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, summer home late yesterday, it was disclosed today." 
  46. Willard Edwards, "Hiss spy paper linked to late treasury aid," Chicago Daily Tribune, 29 November 1949, pp. 1-2
  47. 1251 KGB New York to Moscow, 2 September 1944, p. 2
  48. 83 KGB New York to Moscow, 18 January 1945, p.1
  49. Robert J. Hanyok, "Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945" (Washington, DC: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2005, 2nd Ed.), p. 119 (PDF page 124)
  50. FBI Memorandum identifying Harry Dexter White as agent Jurist, 1950-10-16, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/FBI_Memorandum_identifying_Harry_Dexter_White_as_agent_Jurist, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  51. Andrew, Christoper; Vasili Mitrokhin (1999), [Expression error: Missing operand for > The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB], New York: Basic Books, pp. 106, ISBN 0-465-00310-9 
  52. Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p.261
  53. 53.0 53.1 Haynes, John Earl; Harvey Klehr (2000), [Expression error: Missing operand for > Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America], New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 142–145, ISBN 0-300-08462-5, OCLC 44694569 
  54. "FBI Documents of Historic Interest re Venona That Are Referenced in Daniel Moynihan's Book "Secrecy"" (PDF), FBI's FOIA Website: pp. 17, archived from the original on 2000-08-17, http://web.archive.org/20000817035614/foia.fbi.gov/venona/venona.pdf, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  55. "Appendix A; SECRECY; A Brief Account of the American Experience" (pdf), Report Of The Commission On Protecting And Reducing Government Secrecy (United States Government Printing Office): pp. A–37, 1997, http://origin.www.gpo.gov/congress/commissions/secrecy/pdf/12hist1.pdf, retrieved 2006-10-03 
  56. Weinstein, Allen; Alexander Vassiliev (1999), [Expression error: Missing operand for > The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America--The Stalin Era], New York: Modern Library, ISBN 0-375-75536-5, OCLC 43680047 
  57. Schlesinger, Stephen E. (2004), [Expression error: Missing operand for > Act of Creation: the Founding of the United Nations: A story of Superpowers, Secret Agents, Wartime Allies and Enemies, and Their Quest for a Peaceful World], Cambridge, MA: Westview, Perseus Books Group, pp. 108, ISBN 0-8133-3275-3 
  58. Robert Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946, Macmillan, London 2000 p.265
  59. The Communist Agent Who Caused Pearl Harbor — and Global Economic Havoc https://www.thenewamerican.com/culture/history/item/17147-the-communist-agent-who-caused-pearl-harbor-and-global-economic-havoc
  60. Arthur R. Butz. The Hoax of the Twentieth Century—The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry http://codoh.com/library/book/3959/
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