Ferdinand Tönnies (26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German sociologist and philosopher. He was a major contributor to sociological theory, best known for his theory on Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. He co-founded the German Society for Sociology, of which he was president from 1909 to 1933.
He had certain leftist views, at least later in his life, and was critical of both Imperial Germany and later the NSDAP, and eventually joined the socialist/Marxist Social Democratic Party of Germany, causing various occupational difficulties in both Imperial Germany and National Socialist Germany.
- Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: A sociological view of the decay of modern society., Based on an original essay by Alain de Benoist, translated and interpreted by Tomislav Sunic.