António de Oliveira Salazar

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António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar, (28 April 188927 July 1970) served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He also served as acting President of the Republic for most of 1951. He founded and led the Estado Novo (New State), the conservative anti-liberal government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974.

According to historians such as Jaime Nogueira Pinto and Rui Ramos[1], his early reforms and policies allowed political and financial stability and therefore social order and economic growth, after the politically unstable and financially chaotic years of the Portuguese First Republic (1910–1926).

Salazar's program was opposed to communism and liberalism. It was social Catholic, conservative and nationalist. Its policy envisaged the perpetuation of Portugal as a pluricontinental empire, with Angola and Mozambique as the main colonies, and a source of civilization and stability to the overseas societies in the African and Asian possessions.[2][3][4]


  1. História de Portugal. A luta de facções entre os salazaristas "Até os americanos já o tinham abandonado, temendo "recriar o caos que existia em Portugal antes de Salazar tomar o poder".", from História de Portugal (2009), Rui Ramos, Bernardo de Vasconcelos e Sousa, and Nuno Gonçalo Monteiro, Esfera dos Livros, cited in
  2. JAN PALMOWSKI. "Estado Novo." A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. 2004. 2 March 2010 <>.
  3. Portugal in Africa: A Noneconomic Interpretation, by Thomas Henriksen, 1973 African Studies Association
  4. Portugal's First Domino: 'Pluricontinentalism' and Colonial War in Guiné-Bissau, 1963-1974, by Norrie Macqueen, 1999 Cambridge University Press.

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