Alexander Dugin

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Alexander Dugin
Alexander Dugin.jpg
Born Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin
January 7, 1962 (1962-01-07) (age 57)
Moscow, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR
Nationality Russian
Occupation politicial activist, geopolitical theorist
Organization National Bolshevik Party (1994-02)
Eurasia Party (2002-present)

Religion Russian Orthodox (Old Believer)[1]

Alexander (also spelled Aleksandr) Gel'yevich Dugin (Russian: Александр Гельевич Дугин) (born January 7, 1962) is a russian political activist and ideologue of the contemporary Russian school of geopolitics often known as "neo-Eurasianism". The core political position of Dugin is a Moscow-based Russian state imperialism, to which all other considerations are secondary. He is famous for his so-called "Fourth Political Theory".

History

Dugin comes from a military family. His father was a high-ranking officer of the Soviet military intelligence; his mother is a doctor. In 1979 he entered the Moscow Aviation Institute, but never graduated. His father helped him to get a job in KGB archives, where he found eventually what he was really interested in - forbidden for the general Soviet population works on fascism, eurasianism, world religions and mysticism.

Dugin worked as a journalist, before becoming involved in politics just before the fall of communism. In 1988 he and his friend Geidar Dzhemal joined the nationalist group Pamyat. He helped to write the political programme for the newly refounded Communist Party of the Russian Federation under the leadership of Gennady Zyuganov, producing a document that was more nationalist in tone than Marxist.

Dugin soon began publishing his own journal Elementy which initially began by praising Franco-Belgian Jean-François Thiriart, supporter of a Europe "from Dublin to Vladivostok". He also sought an alliance with Alain de Benoist although the Frenchman was discouraged by Dugin's vehement Russian nationalism and extreme ideas. Consistently glorifying both Tsarist and Stalinist Russia, Elementy also revealed Dugin's admiration for Heinrich Himmler and Julius Evola, to name but two. He also collaborated with the weekly journal Dyen (The Day), a bastion directed by Alexander Prokhanov. Convinced that National Bolshevism needed its own political movement Dugin talked his close ally Eduard Limonov into leading a new group and so the National Bolshevik Front was born in 1994. Dugin then became a prominent member of National Bolshevik Party, but he soon entered in contrast with Limonov and left the NBP to approaching first Yevgenii Primakhov, then Vladimir Putin.

The Eurasia Party, later Eurasia Movement, founded by Dugin in 2002, is said by some observers to enjoy financial and organizational support from Vladimir Putin's presidential office. The Eurasia Party claims support by some military circles and by leaders of the Muslim, Orthodox Christian, Buddhist, and Jewish faiths in Russia, and the party hopes to play a key role in attempts to resolve the Chechen problem, with the objective of setting the stage for Dugin's dream of a Russian strategic alliance with European and Middle Eastern states, primarily Iran. Dugin's ideas, particularly those on "a Turkic-Slavic alliance in the Eurasian sphere" have recently become popular among certain nationalistic circles in Turkey.

One of the basic ideas that underpin his theories is that Moscow, Berlin, and Paris form a "natural" geopolitical axis, because a line or axis from Moscow to Berlin will pass through the vicinity of Paris if extended). Dugin's theories foresee an eternal world conflict between land and sea, and hence, Dugin believes, the U.S. and Russia. He says, "In principle, Eurasia and our space, the heartland Russia, remain the staging area of a new anti-bourgeois, anti-American revolution." According to his 1997 book, The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia, "The new Eurasian empire will be constructed on the fundamental principle of the common enemy: the rejection of Atlanticism, strategic control of the USA, and the refusal to allow liberal values to dominate us. This common civilisational impulse will be the basis of a political and strategic union."

Very important in his theories are the influences of Halford John Mackinder and Carl Schmitt, with their ideas of world's history as a continuous struggle between Land (tradition, religion, collectivism) and Sea (progressism, atheism, individualism). Scholars have claimed that he borrowed ideas from the Traditionalist School.

He has criticized the "Euro-Atlantic" involvement in the Ukrainian presidential election as a scheme to create a "cordon sanitaire" around Russia, much like the British attempted after the first world war. He has criticized Putin for the "loss" of Ukraine, and accused his Eurasianism of being "empty". In 2005, he announced the creation of an anti-Orange youth front to fight similar threats to Russia.

Bibliography

Dugin's Major Works in Russian

In French

  • L’Empire soviétique et les nationalismes à l’époque de la pérestroïka, in XXX, Nation et Empire, Grece, 1991.
  • La Révolution conservatrice russe, Revue Eurasia nº 2, 2006.
  • Le prophète de l'eurasisme, Avatar Éditions, coll. « Heartland »,‎ 2006, 352 p. (ISBN 978-0954465278)
  • La grande guerre des continents, Avatar Éditions, coll. « Les cahiers de la radicalité »,‎ 2006, 100 p. (ISBN 978-0954465261)
  • La Quatrième théorie politique : La Russie et les idées politiques au XXIème siècle, Éditions Ars magna,‎ 2012, 336 p.
  • Pour une théorie du monde multipolaire, Éditions Ars magna,‎ 2013, 240 p. (ISBN 978-2912164858)
  • L'appel de L'Eurasie, Avatar Éditions, coll. « Heartland »,‎ 2013, 222 p. (ISBN 978-1907847189), conversation avec Alain de Benoist

In German

  • Die Vierte Politische Theorie (London: Arktos, 2013).
  • Evola von Links! metaphysisches Weltbild - antibürgerlicher Geist (Straelen: Regin-Verl, 2006).
  • Konflikte der Zukunft: Die Rückkehr der Geopolitik (Kiel: Arndt-Verlag, 2014).

In Spanish

  • Alain de Benoist & Alexander Dugin, ¿Qué es el eurasismo? Una conversación de Alain de Benoist con Alexander Dugin (Tarragona: Ediciones Fides, 2014).
  • Alexander Dugin, Rusia, El Misterio de Eurasia (Madrid: Grupo Libro 88, 1991).
  • Alexander Dugin, La Cuarta Teoría Política (Molins de Rei, Barcelona: Nueva República, 2013).
  • Sebastian J. Lorenz (ed.), Elementos N° 70, "Alexander Dugin y la Cuarta Teoría Política: La nueva Derecha Rusa Eurasiática" (Mayo 2014), <http://urkultur-imperium-europa.blogspot.com/2014/05/elementos-n-70-alexander-dugin-y-la.html>.

In Romanian

In English

Books

  • Eurasian Mission - Program Materials (Moscow: International Eurasian Movement, 2005).
    • Second Edition: Eurasian Mission: An Introduction to Neo-Eurasianism (London: Arktos, 2014)
  • Martin Heidegger: The Philosophy of Another Beginning (Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers, 2014)
  • Putin vs Putin: Vladimir Putin Viewed from the Right (London: Arktos, 2014)
  • The Fourth Political Theory (London: Arktos, 2012).
    • Original Russian: Четвёртая политическая теория (Санкт-Петербург & Москва: Амфора, 2009)
    • Spanish translation: La Cuarta Teoría Política (Molins de Rei, Barcelona: Nueva República, 2013)
    • German translation: Die Vierte Politische Theorie (London: Arktos, 2013)
    • French translation: La Quatrième Théorie Politique (Nantes: Éditions Ars Magna, 2012)
    • Portuguese translation: A Quarta Teoria Política (Curitiba: Editora Austral, 2012)
    • Romanian translation: A Patra Teorie Politică (Chișinău: Editura Universitatea Populară, 2014)
    • Greek translation: Η τέταρτη πολιτική θεωρία (Αθήνα: Έσοπτρον, 2013)
    • Serbian translation: Четврта политичка теорија (Београд: MIR Publishing, 2013).
  • The Seminal Writings of Alexander Dugin: Volume One of a Series on National-Bolshevism (Edited by Troy Southgate), 2000, The Rising Press.
  • The Seminal Writings of Alexander Dugin: Volume Two of a Series on National-Bolshevism (Ed. Southgate), 2000, The Rising Press.
  • The Seminal Writings of Alexander Dugin: Volume Three of a Series on National-Bolshevism (Ed. Southgate), 2000, The Rising Press.

Articles and Interviews

Quotes

"I consider the “White nationalists” allies when they refuse modernity, the global oligarchy and liberal-capitalism, in other words everything that is killing all ethnic cultures and traditions. The modern political order is essentially globalist and based entirely on the primacy of individual identity in opposition to community. It is the worst order that has ever existed and it should be totally destroyed. When “White nationalists” reaffirm Tradition and the ancient culture of the European peoples, they are right. But when they attack immigrants, Muslims or the nationalists of other countries based on historical conflicts; or when they defend the United States, Atlanticism, liberalism or modernity; or when they consider the White race (the one which produced modernity in its essential features) as being the highest and other races as inferior, I disagree with them completely.

— Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin, source: “Alexander Dugin on "White Nationalism” & Other Potential Allies in the Global Revolution"

"More than this, I can’t defend Whites when they are in opposition to non-Whites because, being White and Indo-European myself, I recognize the differences of other ethnic groups as being a natural thing, and do not believe in any hierarchy among peoples, because there is not and cannot be any common, universal measure by which to measure and compare the various forms of ethnic societies or their value systems. I am proud to be Russian exactly as Americans, Africans, Arabs or Chinese are proud to be what they are. It is our right and our dignity to affirm our identity, not in opposition to each other but such as it is: without resentment against others or feelings of self-pity.

— Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin, source: “Alexander Dugin on "White Nationalism” & Other Potential Allies in the Global Revolution"

"The immigration changes the structure of European society. The islamic people have very string cultural identity. The European people weaken their own identity more and more in conscious manner. It is human right and civil society individualistic ideological dogma. So the Europe is socially endangered and is on the eve to loose it identity. The free continuation of the flux of the immigrants could result in the brutal change of the society. So the governments of some European states prepare now the space to control immigration by the means much harder than before. That is the question of their own survival. But they have demonized themselves the anti-immigration discourse. So they make the step backwards and rehabilitate up to the certain measure and under certain conditions some xenophobic far right groups and movements. And that will grow. The condition is liberalism, pro –USA politics and the support of Israel. The governments of European countries believe that they will able to keep the growth of far right wingers under control. I sincerely doubt it."

— Dugin supporting the restriction of non-European immigration, from the interview "The West should be rejected"

Commentary on Dugin and the Racial Problem

  • "We should also note that Dugin’s position on the matter of race and racism is somewhat unclear and questionable. Some have interpreted Dugin’s works as implying the view that race is unimportant to ethnic identity, and that rejecting racism necessarily means rejecting belief in racial identity and difference. It is not yet clear whether this interpretation is valid or no, and Dugin himself may actually believe that race has some importance, but no clear position on the matter is expressed in either The Fourth Political Theory or his essays on Eurasianism that we have seen thus far. If the former interpretation is in fact true, then his position is partly incompatible with that of the New Rightists, Identitarians, and Traditionalists. Although Dugin admires Alain de Benoist and has published some of his essays in Russian (collected in Против либерализма: к четвертой политической теории [Санкт-Петербург: Амфора, 2009]), it is significant to note that Benoist holds a clear ethnic and racial separatist – although strictly non-racist – view, as expressed in many of his works, such as “What is Racism?” (available on our site along with more information through the hyperlink) and Les Idées à l’Endroit (Paris: Libres-Hallier, 1979). Furthermore, Julius Evola, another thinker whom Dugin respects, held a view of race in which the biological race and heritage still held a degree of importance, as expressed in, for example, The Path of Cinnabar (London: Arktos, 2010) and Revolt Against the Modern World (Rochester: Inner Traditions, 1995)." - Editor of the "New European Conservative", Commentary to Olivia Pistun's Review of Aleksandr Dugin's The Fourth Political Theory

See also

References

External links

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