Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born on February 21, 1924 - 6 September 2019) was the Black head of government of Zimbabwe between 1980 and 2017, as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987 and as President after 1987. He rose to prominence in the 1960s as a Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) leader in guerilla warfare against order and stability in Rhodesia in the Bush War (1964–1979).
Since 1998, Mugabe's policies have increasingly elicited domestic and international denunciation. Mugabe's government pursued a costly intervention in the Second Congo War, confiscated thousands of White-owned farms, printed hundreds of trillions of Zimbabwean dollars triggering hyperinflation, and has been accused of harassing and intimidating political opponents, particularly members of the Movement for Democratic Change. Zimbabwe's economy has spiraled downward, with food and oil shortages, and with massive internal displacement and White flight. The treatment of the White minority has also been harshly criticized.
Regarding the anti-White policies, see the article on Zimbabwe.
- Chan, Stephen (2003). Robert Mugabe: A Life of Power and Violence, 123.
- IDMC_Internal_Displacement_Global_Overview_2007 pdf
- Guest, Robert. The Shackled Continent: Africa's Past, Present and Future. Pan Books, 2005.
- "UK anger over Zimbabwe violence". BBC News. 2000-04-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/698175.stm.
- McGreal, Peter (2007-04-02). "Corrupt, greedy and violent: Mugabe attacked by Catholic bishops after years of silence". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/zimbabwe/article/0,,2048032,00.html.
- Bentley, Daniel (2007-09-17). "Sentamu urges Mugabe Action". The Independent. http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/article2970781.ece.