March on Rome
The background included the Communist revolution in Russia and attempted Communist revolutions elsewhere in Europe, the mass killings under Communist regimes such during the Red Terror, fears of a far leftist revolution and terror in Italy, violence between far leftists and fascists (including the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale - "Blackshirts"), and the threats of leftist general strikes, seen as attempted beginnings of the leftist revolution.
The fascists occupied strategic locales and organized the March on Rome. Prime Minister Luigi Facta ordered a state of siege for Rome, thus attempting to order the Italian Army to stop the marchers, who included many former Italian soldiers. King Victor Emmanuel III, however, refused to sign the order and Mussolini was appointed Prime Minister.