J. R. R. Tolkien
J.R.R. Tolkien (3 January 1892 - 2 September 1973), in full John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English literature and language scholar and an author who achieved fame with his children’s fantasy book The Hobbit (1937) and the epic fantasy The Lord of the Rings (1954–55). After his death, his son has published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts.
While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of his works led to a popular resurgence of the genre. This has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the father of modern fantasy literature.
Tolkien voiced support for the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War upon hearing that Communist Republicans were destroying churches and killing priests and nuns.
It is claimed that Tolkien also was a quiet supporter of Arthur K. Chesterton and his British National Front. It is known that Tolkien maintained a twenty year subscription to Candour, which was sold out of his estate in 1973 for £10. Several passages underlined with a pen indicate pessimism about the future of post-colonial Black Africa, and bemoan the power of high finance.
Argued allegories in and influences on fictional works
Various allegories in and influences on the fictional works have been argued. One example is argued influence from the author's devout Catholicism. Tolkien himself stated that these writings were not strict allegories of any kind, but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit.
Most controversial may be claims of influences from anti-Communism, the events of WWII, and/or at this time common race views, such as Nordicism. Tolkien rejected many of these claims. See also the "External links" section.