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Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos meaning "people, nation, class, caste, tribe; a number of people accustomed to live together"[1]) is described as comparative studies of different peoples, sometimes contrasted with ethnography, as studying only one people at a time.

Sometimes considered a branch of anthropology, after the rise of Boasian anthropology and race denialism, the terms "cultural anthropology" or "social anthropology" are often preferred to ethnology, presumably so as to avoid any impression that races are being studied.